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Sinus Rhythms Less2

Types of Rhythms

Sinoatrial node aka natural pacemaker (SAN) Special cell group located in the right atrium that creates cardiac electrical impulses (signals)
Ectopic (displaced) Electrical impulses discharged from cardiac cells outside the sinoatrial node
Cardiac irritability Ectopic electrical impulses in the heart
Causes of Cardiac Irritability Consumption of: Nicotine, Caffeine, and Ethanol
Sinus P waves are positive (upright), uniform, and one P wave for every QRS complex
Superior (upper) Myocardium Where atrial arrhythmias occur when ectopic electrical impulses are discharged from atrial heart muscle cells
Premature atrial contraction (PAC) An ectopic electrical impulse discharged early
Characteristics of a Premature atrial contraction A positive P wave, morphology of the P wave is different, heart rate that depends on the underlying rhythm, normal PRI is 0.12-0.20 of a second, and a normal QRS complex which is 0.12 or less of a second.
Wandering atrial pacemaker (WAP) Caused when electrical impulses from multiple sites in the superior myocardium are discharged (released)
Characteristics of a Wandering atrial pacemaker All P waves are positive, morphology of the P waves consistently changes, distance between R waves is inconsistent (irregular), heart rate usually between 60-100 bpm, and etc.
Atrial tachycardia (AT) Tachyarrhythmia which means abnormal fast rhythm
Characteristics of a Atrial tachycardia Positive P waves, distance between R waves is consistent (regular), heart rate is greater than 160 bpm, and etc.
Atrial flutter Extra P waves that are upright and shape described as "sawtooth". ("flutter waves' or 'F waves")
Characteristics of a Atrial flutter PR interval (PRI) that is unmeasurable, no T waves, regular rhythm between R waves, and a normal QRS complex.
Atrial flutter with a 3 to 1 block Three "flutter (F) waves" between R waves
Atrial flutter with a 4 to 1 block Four "flutter (F) waves" between R waves
Atrial flutter with a variable block Inconsistent number of "flutter (F) waves" between R waves
Atrial fibrillation Extra P waves that are indiscernible (unable to clearly recognize)
Characteristics of a atrial fibrillation PR interval (PRI) is unmeasurable, R waves are naturally inconsistent (irregular), heart rate is determined by counting the R waves and multiplying by 10.
Atrial fibrillation with a slow ventricular response AFib with a heart rate (HR) less than 60 bpm
Atrial fibrillation with a controlled ventricular response AFib with a heart rate (HR) between 60 and 100 bpm
Atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response AFib with a heart rate (HR) greater than 100 bpm
Created by: JBP1031
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