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AP Euro History Ch16

1. "God's handiwork" what educated Europeans called the world around them
2. "natural philosophers" (medieval scientists) perferred refined logical analysis to systematic observations of the natural world
3. alchemy and hermetic magic humans, who it was beleived also had that spark of divinity within, could use magic, especially mathematical magic, to understand and dominate the world of nature or employ the powers of nature for beneficial purposes
4. Ptolemaic universe seen as a series of concentric spheres with a fixed or motionless earth as its center
5. Aristotle principle of the existence of heavenly spheres moving in circular orbits
6. geocentric universe the spheres that circled the earth moved in circular orbits
7. the Empyrean Heaven the location of god and all the saved souls
8. epicycles centric spheres within spheres
9. Nicolaus Copernicus a mathematicianwho felt that Ptolemy's geocenric system was too complicated and failed to accord with the observed motions of the heavenly bodies
10. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres universe consisted of eight spheres with the sun motionless at the center and the sphere of the fixed stars at rest in the eighth sphere
11. heliocentric universe the movement of the sun and the fixed stars around the earth
12. Tycho Brache built the elaborate Uraniborg castle, whic he outfitted with a library, observatories, and instruments he had designed for more percise astronomical observations.
13. Johannes Kepler Keplers work illustrates well the narrow line that often separated magic and science in the early Scientific Revolution
14. three laws of planetary motion confirms Copernicus' heliocentric theory while modifying it in some ways
15. Galileo Galilei the first European to make systenatic observations of the heavens by means of a telescope
16. The Staryy Messenger did more to make Europeans aware of the new picture of the universe than the mathematical theories of Copernicus and Kepler did
17. Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems Ptolemaic and Copernican, unlike most scholarly treaties, was written in italian rathan than latin, making it more widely available to the public
18. the Inquisition found guilty of teaching the condemned Copernican system
19. Lssac Newton invented the calculus, a mathematical means of calculating rates of change
20. Principia demionstrated the mathematical proofs for his universal law of gravitation and completed the new cosmology begun by Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo
21. universal law of gravitation explained why the planetary bodies did not go off in straight lines but continued in elliptical orbits about the sun
22. Galen relied on animal, rather than human, dissections to arrive at a picture of human anatomy that was quite inaccurate in many instances
23. four bodily humors blood, considered warm and moist; yellow bile, warm and dry; phlegm, cold and moist; and black bile, cold and dry
24. Paracelsus beleived that the chemical reactions of the universe as a whole were produced in human beings on a smaller scale
25. "new drugs" historians who have stressed Paracelsus concept of disease and recognition viewed him as a father of modern medicine
26. Andreas Vesalius On Anatomical Procedures, led vesalius to emphasize practical research as the principal avenue for understanding human anatomy
27. On the Fabric of the Human Body based on Vesalius Paduan lectures, in which he deviated from traditional practice by personally dissecting a body to illustrate what he was discussing
28. William Harvey attended Cambridge University and later Pasua, where he0 recieved a doctorate of medicine in 1602
29. On the Motion of the Heart and Blood written by Willian Harvey, it was based on maticulous observations and experiments
30. Robert Boyle was one of the first scientists to conduct a controlled experiment
31. Antoine Lavoisier invented a system of naming chemical elements
32. Margarent Cavendish came from an aristocratic backround and wrote a number of works on scientific matters
33. Maria Sibylla Merian established a reputation as an important entomologist, know for her Metamorphosis of the insects of Surinam
34. Maria Winkelmann the most famous of the astronomers in Germany, assistant to Gottfried Kirch
35. querelles des femmes centuries-long debate about women
36. Rene Descartes made a new commitment to mind, mathematics, and a machanical universe
37. Discourse on Method Descartes decided to set aside all that he has learned and begin again
38. "I think therefore I am" Descartes doubting his own existance
39. Descartes' deductive method the mind cannot be doubted but the body and material world can, the two must be radically different
40. Scientific Method proper means to examine and understand the physical realm
41. Francis Bacon's inductive method a correct scientific method, urged scientists to proceed from the particular to the general
42. "to conquer nature in action" the control and domination of nature
43. Benedict de Spinoza's pantheism was excomminicated from the Amsterdam synagogue at eh age of 24 for rejecting the tenets of judaism
44. Ethics demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner human beings are not "situated in nature as a kingdom within a kingdom" but asmuch a part od God or nature or the universal order as other natural objects
45. Blaise Pascal a French scientist who sought to keep science and religion united
46. Pensees written by Pascal it was "an apology for the Christain religion"
47. English royal Society evolved out of informal gatherings of scientists in London and Oxford in the 1640s
48. French royal Academy of Sciences collected tools and machines, was forced by the war minister of France to continue its practical work to benefit both "the king and the state"
49. Journal des Savants printed results of experiments as well as general scientific knowledge
50. Philosophical Transactions published papers of its members and learned correspondence and was aimed at practicing scientists
Created by: ambrecooper

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