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AP2/ Exam 2

Chapters 21-23

What are lymph nodes -Filter lymph, removes unwanted substances. Small, oval, encapsulated structures
Differences in types of lymphatic tissue -Spleen is the largest lymphatic tissue in the human body with 2 types of tissues -WHITE PULP- lymphocytes and macrophages -RED PULP-lymphocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, granulocytes, and plasma cells
What are peyer’s patches -Small masses of lymphatic tissue found throughout the ileum region of the small intestine. Monitor intestinal bacteria.
How does fluid move through the lymphatic system -Movement of lymph into lymphatic capillaries though Hydrostatic Pressure, Pressure of interstitial fluid pushes lymph into capillaries
What is function of lymphatic system -Transport and house lymphocytes and other immune cells. -Returns excess fluid in body tissues to blood to maintain blood volume
What type of tonsils do you have/ where are they located- palatine tonsils -Palatine, Pharyngeal, Lingual -Secondary lymphatic structures -Immune surveillance of inhaled and ingested substances
What is the function of the spleen -Largest lymphatic organ and acts as a filter for blood as part of the immune system -Contains Hilum, Splenic artery, White pulp, Red pulp, and sinusoids
Hilum Indentation where blood vessels and nerves enter
splenic artery Supplies blood. Splenic Vein: Drains blood
white pulp Clusters of T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages surrounding the central artery
red pulp Contains Erythrocytes, platelets, macrophages, and B-lymphocytes
splenic sinusoids Very permeable capillaries. Storage site for erythrocytes and platelets
Where do lymphocytes become immunocompetent -Immunocompetent: Able to recognize and display a receptor for specific antigens. -Lymphocyte maturation occurs primarily in the red bone marrow and thymus
Characteristics of lymphatic vessels -fed by lymphatic cap -contains valves, lacks a pump, movement by skeletal muscles and resp pumps. pulsation movement of blood in nearby arteries 3 tunics (intima, media, and externa) rhythmic contraction of smooth muscles in larger lymph v walls
When is the thymus gland most active -During Childhood. Shrinks and becomes less active during adulthood.
How are antibodies held/bonded together -Bind antigens though weak intermolecular forces. o Hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic interactions
What is inflammation? -release of inflammatory + chemotactic factors (mast cells + Basophils)- promote inflammation -vascular changes, vasodilation, inc. cap permeability, CAM's -recruitment of immune cells -delivery of plasma proteins -attracts neutrophils and macrophages
Margination Adherence of leukocytes to endothelia CAM’s
Diapedesis Cells escape blood vessel walls
chemotaxis Movement based on chemicals
4 Cardinal signs of inflammation are associated with _____ -Redness, Heat, Swelling, Pain
What is adaptive immunity? created in response to exposure to a foreign substance. Once activated against a specific type of antigen, the immunity remains throughout life
Which of your leukocytes predominate at local or chronic infections (areas of chronic infection) Macrophages
What causes graft rejection? -ABO incompatibility
What are the interferons and their function? -A class of Cytokines that nonspecifically impeded viral spread
What is cell mediated immunity? -Specific lymphocyte responds to an antigen. -Involving T-lymphocyte. -Pathogens in the lumen of the stomach do not respond to cell-mediated immunity
What are NK cells (natural killer cells)? -Destroy a variety of unwanted cells. Form in bone marrow, Circulate through blood and accumulate in secondary lymphatic structures. -Kill releasing cytotoxic chemicals: Perforin, Granzymes -NK cells can kill cancer cells before the immune system
Perforin Creates a transmembrane pore in unwanted cells
Granzymes Enter pore and cause apoptosis of cell
What is margination -Recruitment of leukocytes in Inflammation. -Margination: Adherence of leukocytes to endothelial Cell-adhesion molecules (CAMs)
Which of the 2 lymphocytes is (essential) most critical for any immune response B and T cells
What are naïve T and B lymphocytes ? -Not yet exposed to antigens they recognize
What is function of antibodies? -Immunoglobulin proteins produces against a particular antigen. -Plasma cells synthesize and release antibodies
What is the lag phase? -Initial exposure and the primary response: antibodies production to the first exposure. -Lag phase: Initial period of no detectable antibody.
Self Markers have our name on it. What is the receptors on the cell- major histocompatibility complex? -MHC: Group of transmembrane protein. -MHC I: Found on all nucleated cells -MHC II: Found on APC. Antigen-presenting cells: immune cells that present to both helper and cytotoxic T-cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-cells
What type of connective tissue keeps your airways open? -Fibrous Connection Tissue = Hyaline Cartilage
elastic cartilage Epiglottis composed of flexible elastic cartilage which helps open and close over the laryngeal inlet
What is intrapulmonary pressure? -This pressure is greater than atm pressure, higher pressure in the lungs that works with lower pressure of the pleural cavity to keep lungs inflated. The difference in pressure helps lungs remain inflated and when pressure is equal the lungs deflate
Gas laws Boyles Law Daltons Law Henry's Law
Boyle's Law : The relationship between the pressure and volume of gasses. INVERSE o P1V1 = P2V2 o P = Pressure of a gas. V = Volume of a gas.
Dalton's Law Total pressure exerted by a mixture of gasses is the sum of the pressures exerted indecently by each gas in the mixture. o The partial pressure of each gas is directly proportion to its percentage in the mixture.
Henry's Law When a mixture of gasses is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportional to its partial pressure. o CO2 = MOST SOLUBLE o O2 = 1/20th as soluble as CO2 o Nitrogen is practically insoluble in plasma
Difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure -Atmospheric Pressure: Pressure of air in environment. What law explains relationship between pressure and volume in gases- in relationship to respiratory system -Boyle’s Law. The relationship between pressure and volume in gasses are inversely related
Function of vocal folds -Vibrate to produce sound with vestibular folds that prevent objects from entering the trachea
What is apneustic breathing -Abnormal breathing pattern characterized by deep gasping inspiration with a pause at full inspiration by a brief insufficient release.
Does pH dictate how readily oxygen is released from hemoglobin? -Low pH will increase CO2 which is an inc O2 intake. -CO2 conc dec, causing an inc in pH. Inc in pH, inc hemoglobin's affinity for O2 through Bohr effect, causing hemoglobin to pickup O2 entering blood from lungs so it can transport it to your tissues.
What is tracheal obstruction and is it life threatening? also called an airway obstruction which is a blockage in any part of the airway which can partially or totally prevent air from getting into the lungs. It can be life threatening depending on the degree of the obstruction because it disrupts air exchange
What is pulmonary residual bonding? -The amount of air left in your lungs after maximum exhalation
What is atelectasis and how does it affect respiratory system? - Deflated portion of the lung. o Remains collapsed until air is removed from the pleural cavity
What is the Haldane effect? -The amount of CO2 transported in blood is related to the % of oxygen saturating hemoglobin
What is the Bohr Effect? -Low pH = Decrease amount of oxygen associated with hemoglobin. Caused by increase CO2
What is partial pressure gradient in terms of respiration? -Pressure exerted by each gas w/in a mix of gases. -Each gas moves independent down its partial pressure gradient during gas exchange. -Gradients exist when partial pressure for a gas is higher in one region of the respiratory system than another
Alveolar exchange Between blood in pulmonary capillaries and alveoli
systemic exchange Between blood in systemic capillaries and systemic cells
What is hypoxia and what can cause it? Inadequate amounts of oxygen in circulation. -COPD, Pulmonary edema, Emphysema, Bronchitis
What is the major stimulus for breathing/Major controls in the brain -Blood PCO2 is the most important stimulus affecting breaking. Increase PCO2 (pH) = Increase Respirations. -Medullary Respiratory Center: Autonomic nuclei within the brain coordinate breathing, Ventral and Dorsal resp centers
Characters of the Right lung 3 lobes, separated by a Horizontal and oblique fissure
Characters of the Left lung 2 lobes, separated by Oblique fissure. 2 lobes allow room for the heart
What are the means by which CO2 is transported through circulatory system? -Dissolve directly into the blood. -Bound to plasma proteins and hemoglobin. -Convert into bicarbonate and transported as part of the bicarbonate system in the plasma. (MOST COMMON)
Receptors for olfaction are located… -Located in the Olfactory epithelium of the olfactory region in the back of the nasal cavity
Ethmoid bone- what are the conchae for - helps produce turbulence in the inhaled air and sometimes called turbinate bones that partition the nasal cavity into separate air passages
Autoimmune diseases -Occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks your body, usually the immune system can tell the difference between foreign cells and your own cells but in autoimmune diseases it releases proteins called autoantibodies that attack healthy cells
What is surfactant -Fluid produced by Type II Alveolar cells. Reduces surface tension in the lungs. Keeps Alveoli from collapsing during exhalation.
What is the thickness of the respiratory membrane under normal circumstances (how thick is it) -A thin barrier that is 0.5 micrometer thick that oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across during gas exchange between alveoli and blood of pulmonary capillaries
What mechanism aids in pulling the lungs away from the thoracic wall -Surface tension from Pleural fluid. -Negative pressure in the pleural cavity.
Types of malignancies of the lungs -Classified into small cell lung cancers or non-small cell lung cancers( most common) -Adenocarcinoma -Squamous cell lung cancer (also called epidermoid carcinoma) -Large cell lung cancer
What is the difference between internal and external respiration -Internal respiration: Systemic gas Exchange, An exchange of respiratory gasses between the blood and the systemic cells. -External respirations: Alveolar Gas Exchange: Exchange of gases between the blood and alveoli.
What is the function of the pleura -Thin double layer serous membrane that facilitates movement of the lungs.
What is complement? Over 30 plasma proteins. Work alongside antibodies. Synthesized by the liver as inactive, activated by the enzyme cascade. Classical Pathway and Alternative Pathway
Classical Pathway Antibody attached to foreign substance, then complement binds to the antibody.
Alternative Pathway Complement binds to a polysaccharide of bacterial or fungal cell walls.
What is a mechanism for the development of an autoimmune condition -The body reacts to self-antigens as foreign
What is a febrile -When temperature increases in the average body temp. If temp exceeds 99.5 F. In hyperpyrexia term used to the febrile state when temp exceeds 106 F
What are monoclonal antibodies -Antibodies with identical isotype (IgG), affinity, and avidity that are produced in the lab by cells derived from a single B cell or plasma cell -Acquired immunity: Response to antigen involves specific T- and B-Lymphocytes
How is o2 transported through the system -O2 Binds to Hemoglobin
What is coryza -Inflammation of the mucosa membrane in the nose caused by a cold or hay fever
What conditions characterized by destruction of walls of alveoli -ARDS: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Alveoli collapse with expiration increasing resistance
dorsal respiratory group…How do they affect respiration? DRG- composed mainly of inspiratory neurons located bilaterally in the medulla It controls the basic rhythm of breathing by triggering inspiratory impulses
Do infants have low or high rate of respiration in comparison to an adult? -Higher respiratory rate. 30 – 60 breaths per minute
ventral respiratory group... How do they affect respiration? VRG-columns of neurons located into ventrolateral region of the medulla, extending from the caudal facial nucleus to obex. -contains both inhalation and exhalation neurons -rhythm generating and integrative center
Impulses on the vagus nerve stimulate gastric secretions in the cephalic phase of the regulation of gastric secretions True
the passage of chyme through the cardiac sphincter initiates the intestinal phase of gastric secretions false
the splenic flexure is between the ascending colon and transverse colon false
The falciform ligament separates the right and left lobes of the liver to the anterior surface and attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall True
The gallbladdar is attached to the virceral surface of the liver by the common bile duct false
secretin stimulates the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes false
pepsin and trypsin both function in the digestion of proteins true
amino acids are converted back to proteins in the cells of the microvilli before they are absorbed into the blood false
there are generally more afferent vessels associated with a lymph node than efferent vessels true
the spleen filters lymph in addition to serving as a reservoir for blood false
neutrophils and lymphocytes are the primary phagocytic cells in the bodys defense mechanism false
B cells are responsible for cell mediated immunity false
a molecule, generally a protein, that triggers an immune response is an antigen true
a secondary response relies on memory cells true
immunoglobulins are antibodies true
active immunity last longer than passive immunity true
vaccines are used to provide passive artificial immunity false
an increase in pH above normal is termed acidosis false
the respiratory system compensates for deviations in pH by adjusting the amount of carbon dioxide that is exhaled True
lymphatic vessels and cardiovascular veins are similiar in that they operate under low pressure and some larger ones have valves true
lymph flows in one direction only: towards the heart true
the lymph nodes filter bacteria, viruses, and tumor cells from blood on its way back to the heart false
The most important function of the thymus gland is to destroy worn out red blood cells and return some of the products to the liver fase
injured cells release chemicals such as histamine and kinins that dilate vessels, attract phagocytes and activate pain receptors true
nonspecific defense by which complement proteins attach to sugars or proteins on the surface of foreign cells is called complement fixation true
macrophages from monocytes formed within the bone marrow true
memory cells are descendants of an activated B or T cell True
carbon dioxide is necessary for respiration false
sinuses are lined with mucous membrane that warms and moistens air true
vocal cords vibrate and produce speech as air enters the lungs false
each lung is enclosed in a membrane or sac called the plerua True
when the diaphragm and intercoastal muscles contract, air rushes into the lungs True
the process of respiration is controlled by the medulla oblongata true
The left bronchus is shorter, is wider, and extends more vertically than the right bronchus false
hemoptysis is coughing up blood-tinged sputum true
Created by: vtlove116



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