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AH 112: Immunity

Study materials for the immune system unit

QuestionAnswer
What is the purpose of the immune system? to protect against infectious germs and microorganisms
What does immunity refer to? The body's capacity to resist invading organisms and toxins, preventing organ and tissue damage
Name four antigens (infectious agents) bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites
What are the defense system's cells called? leukocytes
What is the function of leukocytes? seek out and destroy the organism or substance that cause disease/illness
How does the immune system transport white cells (leukocytes) to the site of infection? through the bloodstream
Where are leukocytes stored in the body? in the lymphoid organs
Name three lymphoid organs thymus, spleen, bone marrow
How do leukocytes circulate through the body between the organs and nodes? lymphatic vessels and blood vessels
What are the two basic types of leukocytes? phagocytes and lymphocytes
What are phagocytes? cells that destroy invading organisms
What are lymphocytes? cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them
What is a common phagocyte that primarily fights bacteria? neutrophil
Name the two types of lymphocytes B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
What is an antigen? a foreign substance that invades the body
What are antibodies? specialized proteins that lock onto specific antigens
What produces antibodies? B lymphocytes
How do immunizations work? They introduce an antigen to the body without causing illness; however, the body is able to produce antibodies that will protect against future attack of that antigen
What are T cells responsible for? destroying antigens that have been identified as harmful
What is complement? a system of proteins that assist in killing bacteria, viruses, or infected cells
Name the three types of immunity Innate, adaptive, and passive
What is innate immunity? "natural" immunity, a type of general protection that humans are born with. Includes external barriers like skin and mucous membranes.
What is adaptive immunity? "active" immunity. It develops throughout our lives as we are exposed to more diseases and produce more antibodies against them.
What is passive immunity? immunity that is borrowed from another source and is temporary, like a mother's breast milk.
What are the four main categories of disorders of the immune system? immunodeficiency, autoimmune, allergic, and cancers of the immune system
What is immunodeficiency disorder? when a part of the immune system is not present or is not working properly
Name some immunodeficiency disorders IgA deficiency (primary, meaning you're born with it), HIV/AIDS (acquired, meaning you get it after an infection or as a drug side-effect)
What is autoimmune disorder? the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's healthy organs and tissues as though they were foreign invaders
Name some autoimmune disorders lupus, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
What is allergic disorder? the immune system overreacts to exposure to antigens in the environment (called allergens)
Name some allergic disorders asthma, eczema, food and seasonal allergies, dust mite allergy, bee sting allergy
What is cancer of the immune system? immune cells grow out of control
What is lymphoma? overgrowth of the lymphoid tissues, a common childhood cancer
What is leukemia? abnormal growth of leukocytes, the most common childhood cancer
What is the thymus? In fetuses and infants, it's a two-lobed mass of lymphoid tissue that's located over the base of the heart. It helps form T-lymphocytes for several months after birth, then loses function and undergoes atrophy.
What is the spleen? an organ that filters and removes bacteria and other foreign substances from the bloodstream. Stores blood and 20-30% of platelets.
What is bone marrow? vascular tissue that fills most bone cavities; contains stem cells which can develop into different types of cells. Crucial for blood cell formation and maturation.
Created by: LCC