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Cells

QuestionAnswer
Describe the cell membrane. What chemical(s) is it made up of? What areas are hydrophilic and hydrophobic? Water-soluble phosphate heads are hydrophilic and water-insoluble fatty acids (lipid tails) are hydrophobic.
Have specific SHAPES that fit and hold certain molecules. Receptor Proteins
They form pores and ion channels that allow water-soluble molecules TO GET THROUGH the membrane. Transportation Proteins
They IDENTIFY the organs and "self" Identification Proteins
They extend from the phospholipid bilayer and attach to protein rods and tubules to HELP support the cell from the inside Cytoplasm Support Proteins
Guides how a cell interacts with another cell and allows the cells to STICK to each other Cellular Adhesion Molecules
Synthesizes proteins Ribosomes
Transports materials within the cell, provides attachments for ribosomes, and synthesize lipids Endoplasmic Reticulum
Packages protein molecules for transport and secretion Golgi Apparatus
Release energy from nutrient molecules and change energy into a usable form Mitochondria
Support the cytoplasm and help move substances and organelles within the cytoplasm Microfilaments and Microtubules
Cilia propels fluid over cellular surfaces, and a flagellum enables a sperm cell to move Cilia and Flagellum
Houses the DNA that is directed to all cell activities Nucleus
Movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and lipid-soluble substances from regions of HIGHER concentrations TO regions of LOWER concentration Simple Diffusion
Diffusion of glucose, and amino acids across a membrane with the HELP of a channel or carrier molecule Facilitated Diffusion
Movement of WATER through a selectively premeable from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. Water moves toward regions of higher concentration of solutes Osmosis
Smaller molecules are FORCED THROUGH POROUS MEMBRANES due to the differences in pressure on each side of a membrane Filtration
Carrier molecules transport substances across a membrane from regions of lower concentration to regions of higher concentration, this process requires ENERGY Active Transport
Cell ENGULFS a substance by forming a vesicle around the substance Endocytosis
Is the REVERSE of endocytosis where substances in a vesicle fuse with cell membrane and contents are released outside the cell Exocytosis
MORE solute on OUTSIDE of cell causing it to SHRINK Hypertonic
LESS solute on INSIDE of cell causing the cell to EXPAND and can cause it to bust Hypotonic
SAME amount of solute on both INSIDE and OUTSIDE of the cell causing it to stay the SAME SIZE Isotonic
The cell engulfs a substance that is mostly WATER forming a vesicle around the substances Endocytosis (Pinocytosis)
The cell engulfs a substance that is mostly SOLID forming a vesicle around the substance Endocytosis (Phagocytosis)
G1-The cell regrows, S phase-DNA replicates, G2 phase-The cell grows (new organelles are made) Phase 1 of the cell cycle- Interphase
One copy of every chromosome and half the cytoplasm and organelles divided out into two daughter cells Phase 2 of the cell cycle- Cell Division (mitosis)
Duplicated chromosomes condense, spindle microtubules form, and chromosomes are captured by the spindle Describe the four phases of mitosis-1. Prophase
Chromosomes pulled into a line perpendicular to the spindle Describe the four phases of mitosis-2. Metaphase
Sister chromatids separate in anaphase, daughter chromosomes move toward each spindle pole Describe the four phases of mitosis-3. Anaphase
Spindle microtubules disintegrate, nuclear membranes form around each group of chromosomes at the pole, chromosome unwinds and revert to their extended state, nucleoli (disappeared in prophase) reappears Describe the four phases of mitosis-4. Telephase
Programmed cell death Apoptosis
When cells differentiate, they SPECIALIZE to carry out certain functions
AT CELLULAR LEVEL, WHAT IS CANCER? IN OTHER WORDS, WHAT GOES WRONG IN THE CELL THAT CAUSES A CELL TO BECOME CANCEROUS? CANCER IS AN UNCONTROLLED CELL CYCLE WHICH CAUSES CELLS TO KEEP DIVIDING. THIS IS CAUSED BY MUTATIONS IN THE REGULATORY PROTEINS (STIMULATING AND INHIBITORY) OF THE CELL CYCLE. A MUTATION IN A STIMULATING PROTEIN TELLS THE CELL TO KEEP DIVIDING FASTER. A
Describe how to focus a specimen under a microscope under low and high power. To focus a specimen you first need to center it in the middle of the stage, then use the coarse adjustment knob to focus in on low power, once you have it focused you can switch to high power and use the fine adjustment knob to focus in on your specimen.
Created by: Kalico2019
 

 



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