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BIO161 - Digestive

BIO161 - Digestive System

What does the alimentary canal consist of? (in order) mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
What are the components of the small intestine? How large is the small intestine? duodenum, jejunum, ileum;about 20 feet long
What are the components of the large intestine? cecum (with the appendix attached), ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus
Where are the flexures in the large intestine located? What are they called? the hepatic flexure is located between the ascending colon and the transverse colon; the splenic flexure is located between the transverse and descending colon
What are the accessory digestive organs? (6) salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, sublingual), teeth, tongue, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
What are the 2 types of digestion? mechanical & chemical
What is mechanical digestion? the physical breakdown of food into small particles, thereby increasing the surface area for enzyme action
What is an enzyme? a catalyst; speeds up a reaction (not used up in the process)
What is chemical digestion? breakdown of food into basic building blocks by enzymes; the building blocks are absorbed in the small intestines
What are the 3 main food groups? What are the other 3 food groups? the main food groups are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; the other food groups are vitamins, minerals, and water
What is ingestion? taking in of food into the mouth
What are the 3 types of carbohydrates? complex (polysaccharides), disaccharides, and monosaccharides
What is a complex carbohydrate? consists of many glucose units joined together; these are starches; examples are amylose and amylopectin
What is a disaccharide? 2 monosaccharides joined together
What are the 3 main disaccharides? sucrose (common table sugar): 1 molecule glucose + 1 molecule fructose; maltose: 2 molecules of glucose; lactose (milk sugar): 1 molecule of glucose + 1 molecule of galactose
What are monosaccharides? made up of a single glucose unit: examples: glucose, galactose, gructose
What are all carbohydrates ultimately absorbed as? glucose
What is the ultimate body fuel? glucose
What are the building blocks of protein? How are the building blocks joined together? amino acids are protein's building blocks; they join together with peptide (covalent) bonds to form peptides
How many naturally occuring amino acids exist? 22
What is the threshold for when a string of peptides is considered a protein? >= 50 linked peptides make a protein; < 50 is a chain of peptides (i.e. dipeptide, tripeptide, etc)
How are proteins absorbed by the body? as amino acids
What do fats consist of? trigylcerides: glycerol & fatty acids
What is the composition of saturated and unsaturated fats? saturated fats are lard or fat (unhealthy); unsaturated fats form double bonds and are typically oils
What is the result when carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested? glucose (carbs), amino acids (proteins), and fatty acids and glycerol (fats)
After ingestion, what is the next digestive process? mastication; chewing of food by the teeth and the tongue mixing it with saliva to form a bolus
What are the components of the teeth (from outer to inner) enamel, dentin, pulp cavity
Which layer has blood vessels & nerves? the pulp cavity
What are the different types of teeth? What are the dental formulas for permanent and deciduous teeth? incisors - i (front teeth); canine - c (bites food); premolar - p; molar - m; permanent teeth: 2i, 1c, 2p, 3m; deciduous teeth: 2i, 1c, 2p, 0m
What are the tongue muscles used for? What nerve controls them? the tongue has intrinsic muscles innervated by the hypoglossal nerve; they are involved in speech, swallowing, and taste
What part of the tongue is responsible for taste? Which nerves are involved? the taste buds are called the papillae; they are located on the surface of the tongue; taste is handled by the facial & glossopharyngeal nerves
What are the 5 taste sensations? sweet, sour, bitter, salt, umami
What are the different types of papillae? fungiform, filliform, vallate (or circumvallate)
What do each of the salivary glands produce? parotid - mucous & salivary amylase; sublingual - mostly water & mucous; submandibular - mucous
What happens to the bolus once it is formed by the tongue? it is delivered to the oropharynx where the involuntary phase of swallowing is initiated; the bolus is then passed to the upper part of the esophagus and moves down this tube by peristalis
What are the layers of the GI tract (from inside to outside)? mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa (consists of the longitudinal & circular muscles), and the serosa (aka adventitia)
What is peristalsis? alternating contraction & relaxation waves created by the muscles of the GI tract; pushes the bolus down to the stomach
What are the 2 sphincters in the stomach called, and where are they located? the gastroesophageal sphincter (aka cardia sphincter) is located where the esophagus meets the stomach; the pyloric sphincter is located at the bottom of the stomach where it joins to the small intestine
What is a sphincter and what is its function? it is a muscular structure that prevents backflow (like a valve)
What is the function of the stomach? storage site for partially digested food
What are the regions of the stomach? Where is the stomach located? cardia (around the GE sphincter), fundus (top rounded portion), body, antrum, and pyloris; the stomach is located in the epigastric area
Where does the stomach join the small intestine? the pylorus region of the stomach joins the small intestine at the pyloric sphincter
What is the 3rd muscular layer in the stomach called? What are the other 2 muscular layers called (i.e. found in the entire GI tract)? the 3rd layer is the oblique layer which mixes or churns the food into chyme; the other 2 muscular layers are the longitudinal and the circular layers
Where is the greater curvature found? What is attached to it? the greater curvature is on the left side of the stomach; the greater omentum attaches here
Where is the lesser curvature found? What is attached to it? the lesser curvature is the "inside" curve of the stomach, on the right side; the lesser omentum is attached here
What is the pH of the stomach? between 1.5 - 3.5; very acidic
What is in gastric juice? hydrocloric acid, enzymes (especially pepsin), intrinsic factor, and gastric lipase (per review sheet)
Where does protein digestion begin? Carbohydrate digestion? Which enzymes are involved? protein digestion begins in the stomach (pepsin breaks down the proteins to peptides); digestion of carboyhdrates begins in the mouth (amylase starts the process)
How is the small intestine modified for absorption of nutrients? the mucosal layer of the jejunum and the ileum is modified into finger-like structures called villi; this increase the surface area of the intestines
What is the exocrine function of the pancreas? it secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct
Which ducts empty into the duodenum? the hepatopancreatic duct empties into the duodenum via the sphincter Oddi; the hepatopancreatic duct is formed from the joining of the pancreatic & common bile ducts
What is the purpose of bile? Where is it produced? Where is it stored? bile emulsifies (breaks down) fats; it is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
What is the common bile duct? the liver releases bile into the hepatic duct; the gall bladder utilizes the cystic duct; the joining of the hepatic duct and the cystic duct creates the common bile duct
What does pancreatic juice contain? bicarbonate (pH of 8 to neutralize the acidic contents from the stomach) and enzymes (pancreatic lipase, pancreatic proteases, pancreatic amylase)
What is the function of lipases? ensymes that break down fats into glycerol & fatty acids
What is the function of proteases? Which proteases are contained in pancreatic juice? proteases digest protein; the pancreatic proteases are chymotrypsin, trypsin, and carboxypeptide
What is the function of amylase? carbohydrate digestion
What is the main function of the small intestine? What component of the small intestine handles that? the small intestine is mainly involved in absorption of food through the villi
Where are glucose & amino acids absorbed? fatty acids? all are absorbed by the villi of the small intestine; glucose & amino acids are absorbed through the blood capillaries; fatty acids are absorbed thru the lacteals to the cysterna chyli (then to thoracic duct, hepatic portal vein, liver)
Which vitamins are fat-soluble? Where are they absorbed? A, D, E, and K are fat soluble; they are absorbed during the digestion of fats
Which 3 structures of the small intestine are adapted for absorption? How? the villi, plica circularis, and microvill are all adapted for absorption because they increase the surface area of the small intestine
What are the brush borders of the microvilli? They are the last set of digestive enzymes: lactase, sucrase, peptidases, and intestinal lipase
What is the main function of the large intestine? absorption of water
How is vitamin K synthesized? What is the function of Vitamin K? from the bacteria in the colon; vitamin K stops bleeding
What is the purpose of the sigmoid colon? it pushes its contents as feces to the rectum, where it is store
What are the 2 anal sphincters? the internal anal sphincter is controlled involuntarily; the external anal sphincter is controlled voluntarily
Where are carbohydrates digested? What enzymes are involved? starts in the mouth (salivary amylase); no digestion occurs in the stomach; pancreas (pancreatic amylase); in the small intestine disaccharides are converted to monosaccharides (intestinal amylase)
Where are proteins digested? into what forms? what enzymes? no digestion in the mouth; stomach: pepsin breaks protein into peptides; pancreas: trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase continue breaking down the peptides into smaller peptides; small intestine: peptidases break the peptides into amino acids
Where are fats digested? which enzymes are involved? mouth: no digestion; stomach: gastric lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol; pancreas: pancreatic lipase continues the breakdown; small intestine: intestinal lipase completes the process
What is intrinsic factor? required for absorption of vitamin B12
Created by: debmurph

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