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Digestion at CHS

Review the anatomy of the digestive system

Digestive system termDescription
digestion breakdown of food
absorption transfer of nutients into bloodstream
sphincter circular muscle that closes off a tube
esophagus connects mouth to stomach
enamel covers crown of tooth
pulp found inside tooth; where nerves and blood vessels are
dentin beneath enamel of tooth
HCl, mucus,pepsin contents of gastric juice
oropharynx portion of throat in back of mouth
nasopharynx portion of throat in back of nose
accessory organ assist digestive process
mucous membrane found lining digestive system
submucosa beneath mucous membrane
serosa covers outside of digestive system
peritoneum serous membrane that lines abdominopelvic cavity
mesocolon extends from the colon to the posterior abdominal wall
mesentery fan-shaped membrane that attaches small intestine together
visceral peritoneum part of the peritoneum that covers organs
parietal peritoneum part of the peritoneum that lines the abdominopelvic cavity
ingestion taking in of food
deciduous baby teeth
20 number of baby teeth
32 number of adult teeth
caries dental decay (cavity)
mastication chewing
deglutition swallowing
contents of saliva mucus, water, salt, amylase
alimentary canal another term for digestive tract
papillae raised areas on tongue
uvula prevents food from entering nose
incisors front teeth
cuspids canine teeth
molars 3 back teeth for grinding
wisdom teeth third set of molars; last teeth to emerge
bolus food ball you swallow
chyme food + gastric juice in stomach
gingiva gums
pharynx throat
epiglottis leaf-shaped cartilage which covers the opening of the trachea when you swallow
root part of tooth beneath gums
greater curvature lateral curvature of stomach
lesser curvature medial curvature of stomach
phyloric sphincter between stomach and duodenum
cardiac sphincter between esophagus and stomach
rugae folds lining stomach
duodenum first part of the small intestine
jejunum middle portion of the small intestine
ileum last portion of the small intestine
villi fingerlike projections that line small intestine; increase surface area
microvilli projecting folds of the villi
teniae coli bands that pucker colon
lacteal lymph capillaries that absorb fats
cecum first part of the colon; a blind pouch
ileoocecal valve sphincter between the ileum and the cecum
rectum temporary storrage area for indigestible food residue
feces solid waste material
defecation the process of eliminating feces
vermiform appendix worm-like lymphoid tissue attached to the cecum
peptic ulcer ulcer along stomach lining
pyloric stenosis obstruction of the pyloric sphincter
gingivitis inflammation of gums
caries tooth decay
Vincent disease gingivitis caused by bacteria common in teenagers
leukoplakia white patches on tongue; precancerous
peritonitis inflammation of peritoneum
periodontitis infection of gums and supporting bone
irritable bowel syndrome disorder involving pain and constipation or diarrhea; intestine is overly sensitive to stimulation; can be caused by stress
appendicitis infection of the appendix
fecalith hardened piece of feces that may cause appendicitis
flatus "gas"
hiatal hernia stomach protrudes through esophagial hiatus
GERD chronic acid reflux
enteritis intestinal inflammation
gastroenteritis inflammation of intestine and stomach
nausea unpleasant sensation; urge to vomit
vomiting reverse peristalsis
peristalsis smooth muscle contraction of the digestive system
emesis another word for vomiting
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
diverticulitis infection of diverticuli
diarrhea abnormally watery bowel movement
constipation hard stool or difficulty with defecation
obstipation extreme constipation
colonoscope used to examine colon
hemorrhoids varicose veins of the rectum
spastic constipation caused by overstimulation of the intestinal canal; canal narrows and space inside is not large enough to permit passage of fecal material
flaccid constipation caused by lazy or atonic intestinal muscles
Helicobacter pylori bacteria which causes some ulcers
Created by: cyndilevin



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