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Chapter 1

Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
aden/o gland adenoma-tumor of a gland; the suffix -oma means tumor or mass adenitis-the suffix -itis means inflammation
arthr/o arthritis
bi/o biology- The suffix -ogy is composed of the root log (study) and the final suffix -y (process of condition)
carcin/o cancerous, cancer carcinoma- A carcinoma is a cancerous tumor. Carcinomas grow from the epithelial (surface or skin) cells that cover the outside of the body and line organs, cavities, and tubes within the body.
cardi/o cardiology
cephal/o head cephalic-the suffix -ic means pertaining to. A cephalic presentation describes a "head first" position for the delivery of an infant.
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain) The suffix -al means pertaining to.
cis/o to cut excision - the prefix ex- means out.
crin/o to secrete (to form and give off) The prefix endo-means within; endocrine glands (e.g., thyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands) secrete hormones directly within (into) the bloodstream.
cyst/o urinary bladder; a sac or a cyst (sac containing fluid)
cyt/o cell cytology
derm/o skin dermatitis
dermat/o skin hypodermic- the prefix hypo- means under or below
electr/o electricity electrocardiogram-The suffix -gram means record. Abbreviated ECG (or sometimes EKG)
encephal/o brain electroencephalogram-abbreviated EEG
enter/o intestines (usually the small intestine) enteritis-The small intestine is narrower but much longer than the large intestine (colon).
erythr/o red erythrocyte-The suffix -cyte means cell. Erythrocytes carry oxygen in the blood.
gastr/o stomach gastrectomy-The suffix -ectomy means excision or removal. all or, more commonly, part of the stomach is removed.
glyc/o sugar hyperglycemia- The prefix hyper- means excessive, above, or more than normal. The suffix -emia means blood condition
gnos/o knowledge diagnosis-The prefix dia- means complete. The suffix -sis means state or condition of . Literally, it is a "state of complete knowledge."
gynec/o woman, female gynecology
hemat/o blood hematology
hem/o blood hematoma-In this term, -oma means a mass or collection of blood, rather than a growth or cells (tumor) a hematoma forms when blood escapes from blood vessels and collects as a clot in a cavity or organ or under skin.
hepat/o liver hepatitis
iatr/o treatment, physician iatrogenic-The suffix -genic means pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in. Iatrogenic conditions are adverse effects that result from treatment or intervention by a physician
leuk/o white leukocyte
log/o study of dermatology
nephr/o kidney nephritis
neur/o nerve neurology
onc/o tumor oncology oncologist-The suffix -ist means one who specializes in a field of medicine (or other profession)
ophthalm/o eye ophthalmoscope-The suffix -scope means an instrument for visual examination. (To help with spelling, notice that just as there are two eyes, there are two "h"s in this term.)
oste/o bone osteoarthritis-This condition of aging is actually a degeneration of bones and joints often accompanied by inflammation.
path/o disease pathology pathologist-A pathologist examines biopsy samples microscopically and examines dead bodies to determine the cause of death.
ped/o child pediatric-Notice that ped/o is also in the term orthopedist. Orthopedists once were doctors who straightened (orth/o means straight) children's bones and corrected deformities.
psych/o mind psychology
radi/o x-rays radiology-low energy x-rays are used for diagnostic imaging.
ren/o kidney renal-reno (latin) and nephr/o (Greek)mean kidney.
rhin/o nose rhinitis
sarc/o flesh sarcoma-This is a cancerous (malignant) tumor
sect/o to cut resection-The prefix re- means back. A resection is a cutting back in the sense of cutting out or removal (excision). a gastric resection is a gastrectomy, or excision of the stomach.
thromb/o clot, clotting thrombocyte-Also known as platelets, these cells help clot blood. A thrombus is the actual clot that forms, and thrombosis (-osis means condition) is the condition of clot formation.
ur/o urinary tract, urine urology-urologist is surgeon who operates on the organs of the urinary tract and the organs of the male reproductive system.
Created by: MissMeeMee