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Chapter 1 notes

Where is the heart? In the mediastinum between the 2nd and 5th intercostal space.
How big is YOUR heart? The size of YOUR fist.
How many chambers of the heart are there and what are their names? 4 chambers; Right atrium, Left atrium, Right ventricle, Left ventricle.
What separates the ventricles?; What separates the atria? The Septum
How does the heart work? It acts as a pump; the right side moves used blood from the body to the lungs, the left side used freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body.
How does the heart work pt. 2? The atria receive blood and the ventricles pump blood out.
What is the most muscular part of the heart? The Left ventricle; it has to pump blood to the entire body.
Anterior Front
Posterior Back
Inferior Bottom
Superior Top
Lateral Left side
Septal Middle, dividing wall
Base The top of the ventricles
Apex Bottom of the heart
Endocardium Inner layer of the myocardium
What function does the endocardium have? It holds the heart's conduction system
Myocardium Muscular layer of the heart
What function does the myocardium have? It is stimulated by the electricity of the conduction system that causes it to contract and make the heart pump.
Epicardium Outer layer of the heart
What function does the epicardium have? It holds the coronary arteries.
Pericardium A tough lining around the heart
What is the function of the pericardium? It helps protect the heart.
Pericardial Sac Fluid-filled space between the epicardium and pericardium
What is the function of the pericardial sac? It holds a fluid that allows the heart to shift without it rubbing against anything.
Ischemia Restricted blood flow; can lead to cell/tissue damage or death.
Injury Cells/tissue become damaged from lack of oxygen.
Infarction Death of cells/tissue. An MI (myocardial infarction/heart attack) is the death of the tissue of the heart.
Atrioventricular valves (AV) Have "accessory organs" called chordae tendineae and papillary muscles to help them function properly: Tricuspid valve and Mitral Bicuspid valve.
Tricuspid valve Connects the right atrium to the right ventricle
Mitral Bicuspid valve Connects the left atrium to the left ventricle
Semilunar valves Pulmonic valve and and Aortic valve
Pulmonic valve Exits the right ventricle and leads to the pulmonary trunk
Aortic valve Exits the left ventricle and leads to the aorta
What are the different heart sounds? S1: the sound made by closure of the AV valves (LUB) S2: the sound made by closure of the semilunar valves (DUP)
What is the Skeleton of the heart? The tough connective tissue that forms rings to hold the valves in shape so they can seal properly. The skeleton also separates the atria from the ventricles.
What are the coronary arteries? The heart's main circulatory system and they are on the surface of the epicardium.
The left main coronary artery Branches off into the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and the left circumflex artery (Cx)
The right coronary artery Travels along the the groove between the right atrium and the right ventricle
Where is the main source of a heart attack? The coronary arteries
What is the Autonomic Nervous System? It consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic Nervous System Your brain stem tells your adrenal glands to produce and send adrenaline into the bloodstream causing the heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow to increase. (Fight or Flight)
Parasympathetic Nervous System Acetylcholine is produced when the vagus nerves are stimulated, causing slowing of the heart rate and decreased heart contraction strength. (Resting)
Heart rate Number of beats per minute
Stroke volume Amount of blood pumped out with each heartbeat
Cardiac output Amount of blood pumped out with each minute (Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate)
Blood pressure = cardiac output x peripheral vascular resistance
Systole Contraction of the heart muscle
Diastole Relaxation of the heart muscle
Cardiac cycle One complete heartbeat, including the relaxation and rest between beats
Created by: macirenae
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