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EKG CH 1
Chapter 1 notes
|Where is the heart?
|In the mediastinum between the 2nd and 5th intercostal space.
|How big is YOUR heart?
|The size of YOUR fist.
|How many chambers of the heart are there and what are their names?
|4 chambers; Right atrium, Left atrium, Right ventricle, Left ventricle.
|What separates the ventricles?; What separates the atria?
|How does the heart work?
|It acts as a pump; the right side moves used blood from the body to the lungs, the left side used freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body.
|How does the heart work pt. 2?
|The atria receive blood and the ventricles pump blood out.
|What is the most muscular part of the heart?
|The Left ventricle; it has to pump blood to the entire body.
|Middle, dividing wall
|The top of the ventricles
|Bottom of the heart
|Inner layer of the myocardium
|What function does the endocardium have?
|It holds the heart's conduction system
|Muscular layer of the heart
|What function does the myocardium have?
|It is stimulated by the electricity of the conduction system that causes it to contract and make the heart pump.
|Outer layer of the heart
|What function does the epicardium have?
|It holds the coronary arteries.
|A tough lining around the heart
|What is the function of the pericardium?
|It helps protect the heart.
|Fluid-filled space between the epicardium and pericardium
|What is the function of the pericardial sac?
|It holds a fluid that allows the heart to shift without it rubbing against anything.
|Restricted blood flow; can lead to cell/tissue damage or death.
|Cells/tissue become damaged from lack of oxygen.
|Death of cells/tissue. An MI (myocardial infarction/heart attack) is the death of the tissue of the heart.
|Atrioventricular valves (AV)
|Have "accessory organs" called chordae tendineae and papillary muscles to help them function properly: Tricuspid valve and Mitral Bicuspid valve.
|Connects the right atrium to the right ventricle
|Mitral Bicuspid valve
|Connects the left atrium to the left ventricle
|Pulmonic valve and and Aortic valve
|Exits the right ventricle and leads to the pulmonary trunk
|Exits the left ventricle and leads to the aorta
|What are the different heart sounds?
|S1: the sound made by closure of the AV valves (LUB) S2: the sound made by closure of the semilunar valves (DUP)
|What is the Skeleton of the heart?
|The tough connective tissue that forms rings to hold the valves in shape so they can seal properly. The skeleton also separates the atria from the ventricles.
|What are the coronary arteries?
|The heart's main circulatory system and they are on the surface of the epicardium.
|The left main coronary artery
|Branches off into the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and the left circumflex artery (Cx)
|The right coronary artery
|Travels along the the groove between the right atrium and the right ventricle
|Where is the main source of a heart attack?
|The coronary arteries
|What is the Autonomic Nervous System?
|It consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
|Sympathetic Nervous System
|Your brain stem tells your adrenal glands to produce and send adrenaline into the bloodstream causing the heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow to increase. (Fight or Flight)
|Parasympathetic Nervous System
|Acetylcholine is produced when the vagus nerves are stimulated, causing slowing of the heart rate and decreased heart contraction strength. (Resting)
|Number of beats per minute
|Amount of blood pumped out with each heartbeat
|Amount of blood pumped out with each minute (Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate)
|= cardiac output x peripheral vascular resistance
|Contraction of the heart muscle
|Relaxation of the heart muscle
|One complete heartbeat, including the relaxation and rest between beats