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Topic 2

JAHKMLHS Topic 2 The Beginnings of American Government

TermDefinition
Albany Plan of Union a plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 for cooperation among the thirteen colonies but was never adopted
amend change or modify
Anti-Federalists those persons who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787–1788
apt appropriate, correct, fit
arbitrary not restrained or limited in the exercise of power
arsenal store of arms or military equipment
Articles of Confederation plan of government adopted by the Continental Congress after the American Revolution; established "a firm league of friendship" among the States but allowed few important powers to the Federal Government
Benjamin Franklin An American author, inventor, diplomat, and legislator; proposed the Albany Plan of Union that foresaw the benefits of colonial unity; signed the Declaration of Independence and helped frame the Constitution
bicameral an adjective describing a legislative body composed of two chambers
Charles de Montesquieu a French political philosopher of the Enlightenment whose major work, The Spirit of Laws, was a major contribution to political theory--separation of powers
Charles I In 1628, when Charles I asked Parliament for more money in taxes, Parliament refused until he agreed to sign the Petition of Right.
charter a city's basic law, its constitution; a written grant of authority from the king
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise an agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention to protect slaveholders; it denied Congress the power to tax the export of goods from any State and, for twenty years, denied Congress the power to act on the slave trade
Confederation the joining of several groups for a common purpose
Connecticut Compromise an agreement reached during the Constitutional Convention that Congress should be composed of a Senate, in which each State would be represented equally, and a House, in which each State would be represented based on the State's population
Daniel Shays struggled with debts in the severe post-war recession and emerged as a local leader in the movement protesting high taxes and a lack of debt relief
delegates people with authority to represent others at a conference or convention
due process doctrine that holds that the government must act fairly and in accord with established rules in all that it does
duties a tax on imports
English Bill of Rights this document written in 1689 and designed to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs forms the basis for much in American government and politics today
envoy representative, especially in diplomatic affairs
Federalists those persons who supported the ratification of the Constitution in 1787–1788
Framers group of delegates who drafted the United States Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787
full faith and credit clause requiring that each State accept the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore the charter which this man requested for a royal charter to establish a colony where he could practice his religion was granted to his son Cecil
George Mason framed Virginia's Declaration of Rights, which served as a model for Jefferson in writing the Declaration of Independence
George Washington President of the Constitutional Convention and commander-in-chief of the Continental army during the Revolutionary War
Glorious Revolution events that led to Parliament in 1688 inviting William and Mary of Orange to peacefully replace King James II on condition that they recognize the authority of Parliament and the rights of individuals
inauguration ceremonial introduction into office
James Wilson His essay, Considerations on the Nature and Extent of the Legislative Authority of the British Parliament, circulated among the other delegates; proposed the idea that the British government had no authority to govern the colonies
Jamestown significance of America lay in the possibility that a man could choose, pursue, and realize his own destiny–it lay in a new ideal of individual liberty
Jean Jacques Rousseau The Social Contract, expresses his idea that humans are essentially free, but the progress of civilization has substituted subservience and dependence to others for that freedom
John Adams defended British officer and soldiers charged with the killings in the Boston Massacre
John Jay New York lawyer; president of the Second Continental Congress, diplomat;
John Locke English philosopher whose theories about the natural rights of man, the social contract, the separation of church and state, religious freedom, and liberty influenced the American and French revolutions.
jurisdiction legal authority
King George II granted a charter to a colony that would be an important buffer between the Spanish-controlled lands to the south and the other English colonies to the north
King John signed the Magna Carta
landmark historical, pivotal, highly significant
levy to impose, to collect by legal authority
limited government Government is restricted in what it may do and every individual has certain rights government cannot take away
Magna Carta guarantees of such fundamental rights as trial by jury and due process of law (protection against the arbitrary taking of life, liberty, or property).
New Jersey Plan plan that was presented as an alternative to the Virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention; called for a unicameral legislature in which each State would be equally represented
Petition of Right document prepared by Parliament and sighed by King Charles I o England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
popular sovereignty a government that exists only with the consent of the governed
presiding officer the chair of a meeting
proprietary organized by a proprietor (a person to whom the king had made a grant of land)
quorum fewest number of members who must be present for a legislative body to conduct business; majority
ratification formal approval or final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty
representative government government should serve the will of the people; people should have a voice in deciding what government should and should not do
Roger Sherman proposed what became known as the Connecticut Compromise, which created a House of Representatives chosen by population and a Senate with the same number of representatives from each State.
Samuel Adams A Founding Father; leader in Boston politics through his writing; delegate to the First and Second Continental congresses and helped draft the Declaration of Rights.
Shays' Rebellion series of confrontations between debtor farmers and State government authorities in western Massachusetts in 1786–1787
Thomas Jefferson draftsman of the Declaration of Independence
Three-Fifths Compromise an agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be added into the population of a State for representation in Congress
unanimous having the approval or consent of all
unicameral having one house
venture undertaking involving risk
veto chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a legislature; literally (Latin) "I forbid"
Virginia Plan plan presented at the Constitutional Convention that called for a three-branch government with a bicameral legislature in which each State's membership would be determined by its population or its financial support for the Federal Government
William and Mary of Orange In 1689, after years of revolt and turmoil, Parliament offered the crown to William and Mary of Orange. The events surrounding their ascent to the throne are known as the Glorious Revolution.
William Blackstone an important Enlightenment figure who believed in protecting the rights of the innocent, and in basing judgements on common law—that is, on previous decisions about similar issues.
William Penn An English Quaker leader who advocated for religious freedom, Penn (1644–1718) came to North America in 1682 and established the colony of Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and other religious minorities.
Created by: jim.haferman