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History of Medicine

TermDefinition
Isolated radium in 1910 Marie Curie
Established the patterns of heredity Gregory Mendel
Developed a vaccine for smallpox in 1796 Edward Jenner
Described the circulation of blood to and from the heart William Harvey
Began public health and sanitation systems Romans
Discovered X-rays in 1895 Wilhelm Roentgen
The father of medicine Hippocrates
Discovered penicillin in 1928 Sir Alexander Fleming
Artist who used dissection to draw the human body Leonardo da Vinci
Emphasis was placed on saving the soul and study of medicine was prohibited Dark Ages
Founded the American Red Cross in 1881 Clara Barton
Earliest people known to maintain accurate health records Egyptians
Began pasteurizing milk to kill bacteria Louis Pasteur
Used acupuncture to relieve pain and congestion Chinese
Developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens Robert Koch
Founder of modern nursing Florence Nightingale
Began using disinfectants and antiseptics during surgery Joseph Lister
Created the first mercury thermometer Gabriel Fahrenheit
Developed the polio vaccine in 1952 Jonas Salk
An Arab physician who began the use of animal gut for suture material Rhazes
What did ancient people think was the cause of disease and illness? Ancient people thought that the cause of illness was the result of demons and evil spirits. They also believed disease was the cause of contaminated air.
List four (4) things Hippocrates stressed to help the body heal itself. 1) A healthy diet 2) Good sanitation 3) Clean water 4) Good hygiene
What is the Rod of Asclepius? The Rod of Asclepius was created by the ancient Greeks as the rod wielded by the God Asclepius, who was affiliated with medicine.
In the Dark Ages, what was the main method used to treat illness and disease? In the Dark Ages, the main method used to treat illness and disease was through prayers using monks and priests.
List at least four (4) diseases that shortened the life span of individuals in the Middle Ages. 1) Malaria 2) Smallpox 3) Tuberculosis 4) Typhoid
Why was dissection a major advance in health care during the Renaissance? Dissection was a major advance in health care during the Renaissance because it allowed doctors to view organs and the connection between body systems.
What was the significance of the invention of the microscope in 1666? The significant of the invention of the microscope in 1666 was that it let physicians see organs and organisms that is too small to be seen through the naked eye.
What did apothecaries use to make many of the medications in the 17th century? The thing apothecaries used to make many of the medications in the 17th century was herbs and plants.
Why was the invention of the stethoscope in 1819 important? The invention of the stethoscope in 1819 was important because it let physicians hear the sounds of the internal organs and helped them discoveries significance.
Identify four (4) women who made important contributions to the advance of health care in the 19th century. Why were their contributions important? 1) Clara Barton - founder of the American Red Cross 2) Florence Nightingale - founder of modern nursing 3) Elizabeth Blackwell - First female physician in the US 4) Dorothea Dix - Appointed superintendent of female nurses in the army
In what ways has medicine changed over the years? Medicine has changed over the years in which the extensive research has taught us more about the human body. New advancements in technology has helped with treatments and better ways to detect cancer.
How does the history of medicine influence the future? The history of medicine influences the future in which it shows how far we've come and how we could improve more in the future.
What is the Germ Theory and who is credited for this discovery? The Germ Theory is the theory that one microorganism is. pathogen that causes disease. Louis Pasteur was credited for this discovery.
Discovered sulfa drugs; bacteriostatic antibiotic; cure and protects from bacterial infection (sulfa drug) Gerhard Domagk
Founder of modern medicine; first to investigate human anatomy; wrote a book on the human anatomy Andreas Vesalius
Discovered blood types A, B, AB, and O (blood transfusions) Karl Landsteiner
Discovered anesthesia; nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and ether (anesthesia) Dr. Horace Wells, William Morton, and Crawford Long
Washing hands (Germ Theory) Ignaz Semmelweis
Scurvy; vitamin C deficiency James Lind
Continued and perfected penicillin Howard Florey and Ernst Chain
Insulin for diabetes ( Type 1 for juveniles and Type 2 for older people) Sir Frederick Grant Banting, Charles Best, John James, and Rickard Macleod
Oncogenes; cancer research; Discovered cancer causing genes are already in our bodies Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus
Found out that HIV causes AIDS; HIV= Human Immunodeficiency disease; blood shows low CD4; retroviruses; antiviral drug therapy Luk Montagnier and Robert Gallo
Nutrition and food diet; vitamins; thiamine vitamin B Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Organ transplantation; it is possible to transplant organs between non-identical relatives from deceased to a living person. Joseph Murray
Retrovirus An RNA virus containing RNA as its genetic information.
Bacteriostatic An agent that causes bacteria to grow.
Bactericidal Causing the death of bacteria.
Oncogene A gene that causes cancer to grow.
Dorothea Dix Appointed as superintendent of female nurses in the army. She helped create the first American mental asylum for the mentally ill.
Created by: NataliaO