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Structures - Kin3350

Kin 3350, Ch 1, Anatomical Structures

TermDefinition
Tuberosity large bump (deltoid, tibial)
Tubercle smaller bump (greater and lesser tubercles of humerus)
Process projection (Acromion, coracoid)
spine or spinous process longer, thinner projection (scapula)
condyles bony knobs at either end of a long bone (femoral)
epicondyles smaller knobs above condyles (humeral)
fossa smooth depression (glenoid, subscapular)
facet smaller, flatter smooth surface (Vertebral, prox. humerus)
notch allows passage of structures (scapular)
foramen hole, also allows passage of structures (obturator, skull)
Hyaline/ Articular cartilage protects ends of bones
Fibrous cartilage cushions impact and maintain bone position
Plane Joint flat articular surfaces, slipping or gliding movements; ex: intercarpal joints of wrist;n onaxial
Hinge joint one cylindrical surface and one trough-shaped surface, angular movement in one plane; uniaxial; Ex: elbow and ankle
Saddle Joint saddle like surfaces that fit together, side to side & back & forth movements; biaxial; ex: carpometacarpal joints of thumb
Ball-and-socket joint one spherical head fits into round socket of other, rotational movement (multiaxial), intercarpal joints of shoulder and hip
Ligaments cord, band, sheet of strong, fibrous CT that bind and unites the articular ends of the bond (joint); can facilitate of limit movement between the bones
Bursa fibrous saclike structure containing fluid that protects muscles, tendons, and ligaments as they cross bony prominences and decreases friction
bursitis trauma to a bursa sac causing it to be inflamed due to infection, pressure, or a direct blow to area; area must be drained by syringe or surgically removed
Type I - Aerobic muscle small, last longer at lower intensity, makes energy for aerobic process with by products H2O, CO2, ATP
Type II- Anaerobic muscle (IIa, IIx) larger, better for higher intensive workout and makes energy from anaerobic process; by products: ATP and Lactic Acid
agonist prime mover; muscle producing the movement
antagonist muscle that opposes the agonist
synergists any muscle working with the prime mover
fixator muscle that holds bone in place while another muscle performs; stabilizer
neutralizer muscle that prevents/cancels out any unwanted movement from prime mover
6 factors that contribute to strength Cross-sectional area, length, tension, coordination, texture, specificity
central nervous system brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system 12 pairs of cranial nerves; 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Nervous system most rapid means of maintaining homeostasis; receives info from internal/external environment, initiates and regulates response: Sensation - integration - response
Autonomic nervous system communicates with internal organs and glands
Sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system Arousing
Parasympathetic division of autonomic nervous system calming
Somatic nervous system communicates with sense organs and voluntary muscles
sensory nervous system from somatic nervous system afferent; sensory input
motor nervous system from somatic nervous system efferent; motor output
Purpose of myelin sheaths provides insulation of axon; improved conduction velocity (Speed of transmission)
Arteries deliver TO tissues FROM the heart
Veins RETURN from tissues and go TO heart
Blood Vessel functions take nutrients to muscle and remove metabolic by-products, transport from proximal to distal
Another word for superior cranial
superior closer to the head
another word for inferior caudal
inferior farther from the head
another word for anterior ventral
anterior toward the front of the body
posterior toward the back of the body
another word for posterior dorsal
medial closer to the midline
lateral further from the midline
another word for both palmar and plantar volar
palmar palm side of had
plantar sole of foot
dorsal back of hand/ top of foot
superficial closer to the surface
deep farther from the surface
Sagittal plane plane that divides body left and right
mediolateral axis aThe axis perpendicular to sagittal plane
flexion decreasing joint angle or anteriorly directed rotations of head, trunk, upper arm, forearm, hand, and upper leg. Posteriorly directed movement of the lower leg
extension increasing joint angle )(back to anatomical position) or returning from flexion
hyperextension movement of joint angle beyond the anatomical position
plantar flexion top foot away from tibia
dorsiflexion top of foot toward the tibia
frontal plane plane that divides body back and front
Anteroposterior axis axis that is perpendicular to the frontal plane
aBduction movement away from the midline
aDDuction movement toward the midline
ulnar deviation movement of hand toward ulna
radial deviation movement of hand towards radius
elevation upward mvoement
depression downward movement
inversion sole of foot inward (medially)
eversion sole of foot outward (laterally)
transverse plane plane that divides the body from top and bottom
longitudinal axis axis that is perpendicular to the transverse plane
horizontal abduction moving away from the midline respectively, in the horizontal plane
horizontal adduction moving towards the midline respectively, in the horizontal plane
medial/internal rotation rotation of a segment toward the midline
lateral/ external rotation rotation of a segment away from the midline
pronation rotation of forearm/hand towards the midline
supination rotation of forearm; hand away from the midline
protraction movement forward
retraction movement backward
circumduction distal end of limb moves in a circle while the proximal end is stable
Created by: elizabethcosio
 

 



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