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History of Medicine

The History of Medicine

Question/TermAnswer/Definiton
Andreas Vesalius dissected human bodies and wrote a book on human anatomy
William Harvey dissected hearts; correctly understood that blood circulates in one direction
Karl Landsteiner mixed blood samples and found out about the four blood groups; later used for safe blood transfusions and organ transplants
Wilhelm Roentgen accidentally discover x-rays in 1895
Ignaz Semmelweis discovered washing hands eliminated the spread of infections (especially child bed fever)
Louis Pasteur discovered the "Germ Theory"-one microorganism causes one disease in one person; also developed some vaccines: anthrax & rabies; also began pasteurizing milk to kill bacteria
Edward Jenner discovered vaccination; successfully vaccinated people for smallpox in 1796
Jonas Salk discovered the polio vaccine in 1952
James Lind found out putting citrus in diets can prevent Scurvy-vitamin C deficiency
Alexander Flemming discovered penicillin in 1928 - the first bactericidal antibiotic
Howard Florey & Erns Chain successfully extracted penicillin and used it to treat illnesses; essentially, they perfected the antibiotic
Gerhard Domagk discovered prontosil inhibited growth of bacteria - it also prevented it; the first chemotherapeutic drug
Sir Frederick Grant Banting, Charles Best, & John James Rickard Macleod extracted insulin & administered it to diabetics to reduce blood sugar levels
Michael Bishop & Harold Varmus researched cancer; discovered oncogenes & discovered factors that can activate them
Luc Montagnier & Robert Gallo discovered that HIV developed AIDS - a retrovirus lifelong disease
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins discovered vitamins prevented illness; studied on mice about nutrition & diet
Joseph Murray 1st successful transplant of organs; transplanted a kidney from 1dog to another which were identical twins; following this, the development of rejection drugs showed it was possible to transport organs between non-identical relatives & from dead to living
Marie Curie isolated radium in 1910
Gregory Mendel established the patterns of hereditary
Romans began health and sanitation systems
Hippocrates the father of medicine
Leonardo Da Vinci artist who used dissection to draw the human body
Dark Ages emphasis was placed on saving the soul and study of medicine was prohibited
Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881
Egyptians earliest people known to maintain accurate health records
Chinese used acupuncture to relieve pain and congestion
Robert Koch developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens
Florence Nightingale founder of modern nursing
Joseph Lister began using disinfectants and antiseptics during surgery
Gabriel Farenheit created the first mercury thermometer
Rhazes an Arab physician who began the use of animal gut for suture material
What did ancient people think was the cause of disease and illness? demons and evil spirits
List the four things Hippocrates stressed to help the body heal itself. 1. a good diet 2. fresh air 3. cleanliness 4. exercise
What is the Rod Asclepius? a Greek symbol associated with medicine and healing
In the Dark Ages, what was the main method used to treat illness and disease? prayer
List four diseases that shortened the lifespan of individuals in the Middle Ages. 1. smallpox 2. diphtheria 3. tuberculosis 4. typhoid
Why was dissection a major advance in health care during the Renaissance? physicians can view the organs and the connections between the systems
What was the significance of the invention of the microscope in 1666? it allowed individuals to see organisms that are too small to be seen by the naked eye
What did apothecaries use to make many of the medications in the 17th century? plants and herbs
Why was the invention of the stethoscope in 1819 important? it allowed physicians to listen to internal body sounds
Elizabeth Blackwell first female physician in the United States
Dorothy Dix appointed superintendent of Female Nurses in the army.
Bacteriostatic An agent that causes bacteriostasis (inhibition of growth of bacteria without destruction)
Bacteriocidal destroying bacteria
Oncogene A gene having the potential to cause a normal cell to become cancerous
Created by: kaitlyncruz