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BIO201 Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Define Anatomy The study of structure and form.
What are the techniques for examining structure? Inspection- More important that you know! Palpitation- Touch and feel Auscultation- listen (usually with stethoscope) Percussion- tap with your fingers and listen for the sound Dissection- A cadaver study, some exploratory surgerys
Define Gross Anatomy Regional, surface, and systemic anatomy.
Define Microanatomy Cytology, histology
Define Physiology The study of function at many levels.
Define Tissues Groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common function.
What are the four basic tissue types? Epithelial, Muscle, Connective, Nerve.
Define Organ At least 2 different tissues that perform a more complex function.
What are the functions of an organ? Epithelial tissue- secretes digestive enzymes Muscle tissue- For churning foodstuffs Connective Tissue- for support Nerve Tissue- for organ control
Define Homeostasis The ability of the body to maintain a stable internal environment in a widely changing external environment.
Homeostasis is not _________ Unchanging
Homeostasis is a ________ condition Dynamic
Define Negative Feedback control When a desired affect has been achieved, the stimulus is negated
What are examples of Negative Feedback Control? Withdraw reflex, hormones.
Define Positive Feedback Control The effect increases the stimulus.
What are examples of Positive Feedback Control? Lactation, Blood Clotting, Nerve Conduction, Heroin
What is Anatomical Position? Body erect, feet shoulder width apart, and palms facing forward.
What is the external barrier of a cell called? Plasma Membrane (Plasma Lemma)
What is the fluid that fills a cell called? Cytoplasm (Cytosol)
What is the control center of a cell? Nucleus
What is the Phospholipid Bilayer? A membrane formed from two layers of phospholipids. One end is positive while the other end is negative. The positive end is facing out while the negative ends are adjacent in the middle.
What are the two types if proteins in the plasma membrane? Integral and Peripheral
Define Integral (Integrin) Transmembrane protein
Define Peripheral Enzymes; Mechanical functions, Glycoproteins.
What are the Membrane Junctions? Tight Junctions- integrins fuse together Gap Junctions- The cells are close together but not fused
What is a G phase? Gap Phase- thought to be rest, but is actually a time of preperation for cell replication.
What is a S phase? Synthesis Phase- When the DNA is replicating.
What is Mitosis? Division of the nucleus.
How many phases does mitosis occur in? Four phases
What happens when there is a loss of control mechanisms? Cancer
What are Stem Cells? The initial cells of embryonic development
What is Apoptosis? Programmed cell death
What is the role of Epithelial Tissue? Epithelial tissue is a covering- but may be internal.
What is the role of Connective Tissue? Connective tissue has a support role
What is the role of Muscle Tissue? Muscle tissue functions in movement
What is the role of Nerve Tissue? Nerve tissue is for communication/control
What are the two surfaces of Epithelia? Apical and Basal
Define Apical The surface exposed to the exterior.
Define Basal The surface connected to a structure
What is the basement membrane? The combination of the Basal Lamina and the Reticular Lamina.
What is Simple Epithelia A single layer
What is Stratified Epithelia More than one layer
What are the three basic shapes of epithelia? Squamous, Cuboidal, and Columnar
Where can you find Simple Squamous Epithelium? In the Kidney
Where can you find Simple Cuboidal Epithelium? Glands, Liver, Kidney (tubules)
What kind of function does Simple Cuboidal Epithelium often have? Secretory function
Where can you find Simple Columnar Epithelium? Intestine, Uterus, Stomach, Kidney tubules
What kind of functions does Simple Cuboidal Epithelium have? Can have absorptive and secretory fuunction
Where can you find Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium? Respiratory Tract
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium can have ________ which secrete mucus Goblet Cells
Stratified Squamous Epithelium can be __________ or ____________ keratinized, non keratinized
Where can you find Stratified Cuboidal Epithelia? Ducts of mammary glands and ovaries.
Where can you find Stratified Columnar Epithelia? Usually at the junction of two types of epithelium
Where can you find Transitional Epithelia? In the lining of the urinary tract
What are the Connective Tissue Types? CT Proper, Cartilage, Bone, Blood
Create a table listing the Categories and Subcategories of the Connective Tissue TypesPrope CT Cartilage Blood Bone Loose Hyaline White Cells Compact Areolar Elastic Red Cells Dense Reticular Fibro Platelets Dense
Where is Dense Regular Connective Tissue found? Tendons and Ligaments
Where is Dense Irregular Connective Tissue found? Dermis of skin, Organ Capsules, Sheathing of bones, and Nerves
Where is Reticular Tissue found? lymph nodes, spleen, and red bone marrow
What is Adipose tissue? Fat
Where can Adipose tissue be found Skin, organ surfaces, and bone
What are the tumors of Adipose tissue? Benign and Malignant
A Benign tumor of adipose tissue is called a: Lipoma
A Malignant tumor of adipose tissue is called a: Liposarcoma
Where can you find Hyaline Cartilage? Ends of bones in movable joints
Where can you find Elastic Cartilage? Outer ear, epiglottis, and auditory canal
Where can you find Fibrocartilage? Intervertebral discs, symphysis, knee joints, etc. (shock absorbers)
What are Osteocytes? Mature bone cells
What do Osteoblasts do? Generate new cells
What do Osteoclasts do? Destroy bone
Where is Spongy bone found? Marrow spaces and inside heads of long bones.
Where is Compact bone found? In the External Bone surfaces.
How many Axons do you have on a Neuron? 1
Skeletal muscles are attached to ______ or forming ______ Bone, Sphincters
The cell body of Nervous Tissue is _______ Soma
Dendrites are _____ and Axons are ______ Inputs, Output
Define Hyperplasia Growth in tissues through increases in the number of cells, ex. childhood growth.
Define Hypertrophy Growth in tissues through increase in the size of existing cells, ex. excercise.
What is a Merkel Cell Merkel Cells are linked to sensory endings and found at the junction of the Epidermis and Dermis.
What are the Strata (layers) of the Epidermis and their qualities Stratum Corneum- Thickest Layer Stratum Lucidum- Clear Stratum Granulosum- Flat Stratum Spinosum- Langerhans cell Stratum Basale- Deepest
Define Dermis Layers of the skin profund (deep) to the epidermis
What is a tear of the dermis known as? Stretch marks
What is Melanin? a dark pigment
What is a Melanocyte Melanin producing cells located in the deepest layer of the skin.
Basal Cell Carcinoma is slow growing, _____% cure. 99%
Squamous cell Carcinoma has a good prognosis if caught ______and _______. Early, Treated
Define Squamos Cell Carcinoma Bleeds easily, Friable lesion, Sun exposed areas, May arise from actinic keratosis.
Define Basal Cell Carcinoma Most Common, rarely metastasizes, sun exposed areas.
Malignant Melanoma Bad Cancer, Rapidly Metastasizes
What are the ABC's of Skin Cancer Asymmetry Border Irregularity Color Diameter (6mm) Elevation (above the skin surface)
What is a First Degree Burn? Epidermis only, ex. sunburn
What is a Second Degree Burn? Epidermis and Upper Dermis, partial thickness
What is a Third Degree Burn? Epidermis, Dermis, And Tissue below, full thickness burn
What are the burn percentages for each part of the body? Anterior leg- 9% Posterior leg- 9% Each arm- 9% Anterior Trunk- 18% Posterior Trunk- 18% Head-18% Perineum- 1%
What are the 5 Cardinal Signs of Inflammation and their meanings? Rubor- redness Dolor- Pain Calor- heat Tumor- Swelling Functio Laesa- loss of function
What is the function of Simple Squamous Epithelium? Simple squamous epithelial cells in the kidney enable rapid filtration of the blood and diffusion of small molecules.
What are the Functions of Simple Epithelia> Absorption, Secretion, and Filtration.
What is Langerhans Cell? Microphages that reside in the epidermis.
What is a Keratinocyte? The most prevalent cell type that produces keratin, reside in the deepest layer.
What is keratin? A fibrous protein that makes up hair, skin and nails.
What is Neoplasia? Benign or Malignant tumor formation.
How can you identify the difference between Skeletal and Muscle tissue? Muscle tissue has intercalated discs.
What are the histologic features of skeletal muscle? Cells are multinucleic Unbranched, striated,
What are the histologic features of cardiac muscle? Branched, striated, single nucleus located in cell center.
What is Hypertrophic Obesity? Deposition of fat in adipocytes
What is Hypercellular Obesity? An overabundance of Adipocytes.
What are Chondroblast cells? Growing Cartilage matrix, Early Stage, Childhood.
What are Chondrocytes? The only cells found in cartilage, they produce and maintain the cartilage matrix.
What tissue is the most abundant? Connective
What is Endothelium? lining of blood vessels
What is Mesothelium? lining in the ventral cavity.
What do Centrioles do? Help a cell divide
What is an Organ System's complex function? Nervous System, Peripheral, and Central
What is Cyanosis? Blue-ish coloration off skin resulting from inadequate perfusion of skin
What does Pallor mean? Pale
What is Erythema? redness due to blood under the skin or mucosa
What is Hyperemia? an excess of blood in the vessels supplying an organ or other body part.
What is Jaundice? The yellowing from a build up bile in tissues, usually means liver issues
What are Meissner Cells? nerve ending in the skin that is responsible for sensitivity to light touch.
What is the hormone for bone and teeth? Vitamin D
What does the Axial Skeleton consist of? consists of skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum.
What does the Appendicular Skeleton consist of? consists of the limbs and girdles.
What organ does the RUQ contain? Liver
What organ does the LUQ contain? Spleen
What organ does the RLQ contain? Appendix
Created by: sakina.arif