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History of Medicine

Chapter 1; History of Medicine; History & Trends of Health Care

Term/ QuestionDefinition
In what ways has medicine changed over the years? There are more technological features. More different antibiotics, medications that children can take, and inhalers.
How does the history of medicine influence the future? there are more cures to diseases that were killing many people before, now.
Retrovirus any of a group of RNA viruses that insert a DNA copy of their genome into the host cell in order to replicate.
Bacteriostatic a biological or chemical agent that stops bacteria from reproducing, while not necessarily killing them otherwise.
Oncogene a gene that in certain circumstances can transform a cell into a tumor cell.
Andreas Yesalius Human Anatomy: dissected bodies; wrote a book on The Structure of Human Anatomy.
William Harvey Described the circulation of blood to and from the heart.
Karl Landsteiner Blood variation. Developed 4 blood types; A, B, AB, and O. Made organ transplant possible using blood transfusion.
Dr. Horace Wells & William Morton & Crawford Long Used Nitrious Oxide & ether for Anesthesia. Also used chloroform to help women to have a pain free childbirth.
William Roentgen Discovered X-rays in 1895.
Ignaz Semmelweis Solved germs in maternity by chlorid (child bed fever). Hand washing
Louis Pasteur Began pasteurizing milk to kill bacteria.
Edward Jenner Developed a vaccine for smallpox in 1796.
Jonas Salk Developed the polio vaccine in 1952.
James Lind Scurvy; vitamin C deficiency (ascorbic acid)
Sir Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin in 1928
Howard Florey & Erns Chain Perfected penicillian
Gerhard Domagk Prontosil. Sulfa drug. Cured bacterial infection. Also used as a chemo drug.
Sir Frederick Grant Banting, Charles Best, John James, and Rickard Macleod Insulin for diabetes in 1920. Type 1- juvenile diabetes Type 2- older people; diets or oral meds can also play a part
Michael Bishop, Harold Varmus Discovered cancer causing genes.
Luck Montagner, Robert Gallo Discovered aids, and HIV.
Carla Barton Founded the American Red Cross in 1881.
Chinese Used acupuncture to relieve pain and congestion.
Marie Curie Isolated radium in 1910.
Leonardo da Vinci Artist who used dissection to draw the human body.
Dark Ages Emphasis was placed on saving the soul and study of medicine prohibited.
Egyptians Earliest people known to maintain accurate health records.
Gabriel Farenhiet Created the first mercury thermometer.
William Harvey Described the circulation of blood to and from the heart.
Hippocrates The father of medicine.
Robert Koch Developed the culture plate method to identity pathogens.
Joseph Lister Began using disinfectants and antiseptics during surgery.
Gregory Mendel Established the patterns of heredity.
Florence Nightingale Founder of modern nursing.
Rhazes An Arab physician who began the use of animal gut for suture material.
Romans Began public health and sanitation systems
What did ancient people think was the cause of disease and illness? Evil Spirits, Demons, and Sin
List 4 things Hippocrates stressed to help the body heal itself. Good diet, Fresh Air, Cleanliness, and Exercise.
What is the Rod of Asclepius? The Greek symbol associated with medicine and healing. Was founded in ancient Greece.
In the Dark Ages, what was the main method used to treat illness and disease? Prayer and divine intervention.
List at least four diseases that shortened the life span of individuals in the Middle Ages. The Black Plague, Flu, Smallpox, and Polio
Why was dissection a major advance in health care during the Renaissance? Doctors could now view body organs and see the connection between different systems.
What was the significance of the invention of the microscope in 1666 It allowed physicians to see organisms that are too small to be seen by the human eye and could look at many of the pathogenic organisms that cause disease.
What did apothecaries use to make many of the medications in the 17th century? They were made from plants and herbs similar to those used in ancient times.
Why was the invention of the stethoscope in 1819 important? It was used to listen to the various sounds made by the heart and lungs.
Identify four women who made important contributions to the advance of health care in the 19th century. Why were their contributions important? Rene Lannec- Stethoscope Florence Nightingale- Founder of modern nursing Carla Barton- Founder of the American Red Cross Francis Clarke- Patented the first Electrical Hearing Aids
Created by: adriannamolla04