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Chapter One:

The Human Body: An Orientation

TermDefinition
Anatomy The study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another
Physiology The study of how the body and its parts work or function
Atoms Tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules
Cells The smallest units of all living things
Tissues Groups of similar cells that have a common function
Organ A structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body
Organ System A group of organs that work together to perform a vital body function
Organisms An individual living thing
Integumentary System The skin and its accessory organs
Skeletal System System of protection and support composed primarily of bone and cartilage
Muscular System Organ system consisting of skeletal muscles and their connective tissue attachments
Nervous System Fast-acting control system that employs nerve impulses to trigger muscle contraction or gland secretion
Endocrine System Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones
Cardiovascular System Organ system that distributes blood to all parts of the body
Lymphatic System A system of lymphatic vessels, lymphatic nodes, and other lymphatic organs and tissues
Respiratory System Organ system that carries out gas exchange; includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Digestive System System that processes food into absorbable units and eliminates indigestible wastes
Urinary System System primarily responsible for water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and the removal of nitrogenous wastes from the blood
Reproductive System Organ system that functions to produce offspring
Movement All the activities promoted by the muscular system
Responsiveness / Irritability The ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then to react to them
Digestion The bodily process of breaking down food chemically and mechanically
Metabolism The sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in the body
Excretion The elimination of waste products from the body
Reproduction The production of offspring
Growth An increase in size, usually accomplished by an increase in the number of cells
Nutrients Taken in via the diet, contain the chemicals used for energy and cell building
Oxygen Needed for the chemical reactions that release energy from food
Water Accounts for sixty to eighty percent of body weight
Body Temperature Must be maintained at around 37*C (98*C)
Atmospheric Pressure The force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air
Homeostasis A state of equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body
Receptor A peripheral nerve ending specialized for response to particular types of stimuli; molecule that binds specifically with other molecule
Control Center Determines the level at which a variable is to be maintained, analyses the information it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of action
Effector An organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings
Negative Feedback Mechanisms Net effect of the response to the stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity
Positive Feedback Mechanisms Tend to increase the original disturbance (stimulus) and to push the variable farther from its original value
Homeostatic Imbalance Most disease can be regarded as a result of its disturbance
Anatomical Position It is always assumed that the body is in a standard position
Abdominal Anterior body trunk inferior to the ribs
Acromial Point of shoulder
Antecubital Anterior surface of elbow
Axillary Armpit
Brachial Arm
Buccal Cheek area
Carpal Wrist
Cervical Neck region
Coxal Hip
Crural Leg
Digital Fingers, toes
Femoral Thigh
Fibular Lateral part of leg
Inguinal Area where thigh meets body trunk; groin
Nasal Nose area
Oral Mouth
Orbital Eye area
Patellar Anterior knee
Pelvic Area overlying the pelvis anteriorly
Pubic Genial region
Sternal Breastbone area
Tarsal Ankle region
Thoracic Chest
Umbilical Navel
Calcaneal Heel of foot
Cephalic Head
Deltoid Curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle
Femoral Thigh
Gluteal Buttock
Lumbar Area of back between ribs and hips
Occipital Posterior surface of head
Olecranal Posterior surface of elbow
Popliteal Posterior knee area
Scapular Shoulder blade region
Sural The posterior surface of lower leg; the calf
Vertebral Area of spine
Plantar Pertaining at the sole of the foot
Directional terms Used to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another
Superior (Cranial or cephalad) Towards the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
Inferior (caudal) Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
Anterior (ventral) Toward or at at the front of the body; in front of
Posterior (dorsal) Towards or at the backside of the body; behind
Medial Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
Lateral Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
Intermediate Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Proximal Close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial (external) Toward or at the body surface
Deep (internal) Away from the body surface; more internal
Section Cut
Plane An imaginary line where the section is made through the body wall or organ
Sagittal Section A longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions
Midsagittal/Median Section Specific sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
Frontal (coronal) Section A longitudinal plane that divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse (cross) Section A cut made along a horizontal plane, dividing the body or organ into superior and inferior parts
Dorsal Body Cavity Two subdivisions (cranial and spinal cavities)
Cranial Cavity The space inside the bony skull
Spinal Cavity Extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column
Ventral Body Cavity Four subdivisions (thoracic, diaphragm, abdominal, and pelvic cavity)
Thoracic Cavity Separated from the rest of the ventral cavity
Diaphragm A muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
Mediastinum The region of the thoracic cavity between the lungs
Abdominopelvic Cavity Cavity inferior to the diaphragm
Abdominal Cavity Stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs
Pelvic Cavity Reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum
Umbilical Region Centermost region, deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel)
Epigastric Region Superior to the umbilical region
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region Inferior to the umbilical region
Right/Left Iliac (Inguinal) Regions Lateral to the hypogastric region
Right/Left Lumbar Regions Lateral to the umbilical region
Right/Left Hypochondriac Regions Flank the epigastric region and contain the lower ribs
Created by: sarah23me1