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Intro to A&P

Anatomy The study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationships between them.
Physiology The study of hope organisms perform their vital functions
Gross anatomy
Examines large visible structures
Surface anatomy Exterior features
Regional anatomy Body areas
Sectional anatomy Cross section
Systemic anatomy Organ systems
Clinical anatomy Medical specialties
Developmental anatomy Embryology
Microscopic anatomy Examines cells and molecules
Cytology Study of cells
Histology Study of tissues
Cell physiology Function of cells
Organ physiology Function of specific organs
Systemic physiology Functions of organ systems
Pathological physiology Effects of disease on organs or systems
Signs/symptoms Fever/tiredness
Scientific method -form hypothesis -test hypothesis
Chemical level -atoms -molecules
Cellular level Cells (smallest loving units in the body)
Tissue level A group of cells working together
Integumentary system major organs -skin -hair -sweat glands -nails
Integumentary functions -protection -regulate body temp -provides sensory information
Skeletal major organs -bones -cartilages -associated ligaments -bone marrow
Skeletal functions -support -stores calcium and minerals -forms blood cells
Muscular system functions -provides movement -protection/support -generated heat and maintains body temperature
Nervous major organs -brain and spinal cord -peripheral nerves -sense organs
Nervous functions -response to stimuli -coordinates other systems -interprets sensory information
Endocrine major organs -pituitary, thyroid, adrenal gland, pancrease, gonad
Endocrine function -adjusts metabolic activity and energy use -controls changes during development
Cardiovascular major organs -heart -blood -blood vessels
Cardiovascular functions -distributes blood cells, water, nutrients,waste, oxygen and carbon dioxide -distributes heat
Lymphatic major organs -spleen -thymus -lymphatic vessels -lymph nodes -tonsils
Lymphatic functions -defend against disease and infection
Respiratory major organs -nasal cavities -sinuses -larynx -trachea -bronchi -lungs -alveoli
Respiratory functions Delivers air, provides oxygen to bloodstream, removed carbon dioxide from bloodstream, produces communication (speech)
Digestive major organs -teeth -tongue -pharynx -espophagus -stomach -small intestine -large intestine -liver -gallbladder -pancreas
Digestive functions -digest food -absorbs nutrients -stores energy
Urinary major organs -kidneys -ureters -urinary bladder -urethra
Urinary functions -excrete waste products from the blood -controls water balance by regulations volume of urine -stores urine -regulates PH
Autoregulation Automatic response in acell, tissue or organ to and environmental change
Extrinsic regulation Responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems
A homeostasis regulator mechanism consists of? -receptor (receive stimulus) -control center (processes and send instructions) -effector (carries out instructions)
Set point Desired value for homeostasis
Negative feedback -the response of effector takes care of stimuli -body normalizes
Positive feedback -initial stimulus produces a response that amplifies the original change in conditions -body is moved away from homeostasis -normal range NOT retained -completes a dangerouz process quickly (repairing lacerations)
Disease Caused by the failure to maintain homeostasis
Created by: Garciamentzer
Popular Anatomy sets




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