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AP Human Geo Ch.1

AP Human Geography Chapter 1

actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scop globalization
how has globalization become easier technology and transportation have improved
what is a positive aspect of globalization we get new things that we wouldn't have otherwise
what is a negative aspect of globalization we have to rely on other countries to make neccesities that we need and if something happens in that country we don't have what we need
one way people are searching for more ways to express their unique cultural traditions and economic practices is called what local diversity
what are the two branches of geography human geography and physical geography
how do geographers describe where things are using maps
number of people compared to size population density
a 2-D or flat-scale model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it map
a specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic; every place occupies a unique location, or position,on Earth's surface point
the science of map making cartography
used to navigate or locate places reference map
designed to show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area thematic map
changes colors choropleth map
a map where the size of the countries are equal to whatever is being measured cartogram
mental map cognitive map
large scale map has _______________________ more detail
small scale maps have _______________ less detail and larger views
gives you a ratio ratio scale
no numbers written scale
use the picture graphic scale
graphic scales are different from ratio scales because graphic scales don't show you a ratio
what is the most accurate way to represent Earth globe
spherical shape of Earth causes cartographers problems disortion
the scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map projection
what are the 3 most common types of map projections -equal area/ gall peters projection -robinson projection -mercator projection
advantages & disadvantages of the equal area projection keeps area but shape is wrong
advantages & disadvantages of the robinson projection bends easier on projection
advantages & disadvantages of the mercator projection up close not as distorted & preserves shape area gets distorted near poles
what are 3 contemporary geography tools GPS (global positioning system) Remote Sensing GIS (geographic information system)
the scanning of the earth by satellite or high-flying aircraft in order to obtain information about it remote sensing
the position that something occupies on earth's surface location
the name given to a place on earth toponym
5 ways places are named ~named after people (Washington D.C.) ~named with religious association (St. Louis) ~named from history (Athens, Rome) ~named for the origins of the settlers (New York) ~named for physical environment (West Yellowstone, MT)
physical character of the place site
what is important in selecting location for settlement climate, water sources, topography, soil vegetation, latitude, and elevation
location of a place relative to other places situation
location of any place can be described precisely by using latitude and longitude mathematical location
latitude parallels
longitude meridians
0 degrees longitude, runs through Greenwich, England prime meridian
0 degrees latitude equator
what are the 3 types of regions formal, functional, vernacular
an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics formal region
an area organized around a node of focal point functional region
a place that people believe to exists as part of their cultural identity; emerge from people's informal sense of space vernacular region
example of a formal region Louisiana, climate zones
example of a functional region Baton Rouge, TV station & broadcast area
what people think vernacular region
regions can be constructed to encompass an area of widely varying scale, from a very small portion of Earth to a very large portion Spatial Association
different conclusions can be made concerning a regions characteristics depending on its __________________________ scale
what is Tobler's first law of geography everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things
what is distance decay and what kind of correlation does it have the closer you are the more interaction you have; distance decay is a negative correlation
what is a positive correlation as one thing increases, the other does too
what is a negative correlation as one thing increases, the other decreases
what is time-space convergence/compression and what has influenced it we are coming together more than we are separating; technology and transportation have influenced time-space compression
what is made easier for people because the scale of the world is shrinking it is easier for people from different places to interact
most economic activities undertaken in one region are influenced by the ______________________________ with _____________________________ located elsewhere interaction; decision makers
no distinct place anymore placelessness
strong determination to hang onto local culture can cause ______________________ for people with other __________________, _____________________, and material traits intolerance; beliefs; social forms
people residing in different places are displaying fewer ____________________________ and more ___________________________ in their cultural preferences differences; similarities
what comes from forces promoting both globalization and preservation(local diversity) tension
geographers think about the arrangement of people and activities found in _________________ and try to understand WHY those people and activities are __________________________ across space as they are space; distributed
"the 'why' of where" spatial thinking
the most fundamental skill that geographers possess to understand the arrangement of objects across surfaces spatial thinking
who compared geography's concern for space to history's concern for time Immanuel Kant
why do geographers organize material spatially they understand that an action at one point in space can result from something happening at another point
why are places similar and different distribution
what are the 3 main properties of distribution density, concentration, and pattern
the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area density
what are the 3 types of density arithmetic density (population density), physiological density, agricultural density
the country's total population divided by its area. large population does not mean large density- density considers population AND land area arithmetic density (population density)
the number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture physiological density
the number of farmers per unit area of farmland agricultural density
extent of a feature's spread over space concentration
objects close together clustered
objects far apart dispersed
geographers use concentration to describe changes in distribution
the geometric arrangement of objects in space pattern
objects are frequently arranged in a square or rectangle pattern
why kind of pattern do many American cities have grid
process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time diffusion
how are ideas diffused rapidly today communications and transportation
place from which an innovation originates hearth
spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another relocation diffusion
spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process expansion diffusion
spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places hierarchical diffusion
rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population contagious diffusion
spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse stimulus diffusion
a 2-D or flat representation of Earth's surface map
the science of map making cartography
give an example of early map-making and the unusual materials used for the map Babylonians drew maps on clay tablets
who first demonstrated that the Earth was round and how Martin Waldseemuller made the first map that had the label America so it proved that there was another side of the world
who first used the term 'geography" Eratosthenes
what were 3 of Eratosthenes' contributions to geography -prepared one of the earliest maps -credited with dividing the world into meridians -created accurate computation of Earth's circumference
provide examples of development in geography for the chinese Pei Xiu the "father of Chinese cartography" produced an elaborate map of China in A.D. 267
provide examples of development in geography for the Muslims Muhammd al- larisi prepared a world map and geography in text in 1154
provide examples of development in geography for the Age of Discovery -first map to show the Western Hemisphere with the label America (Martin Waldseemuller 1520) -Abraham Ortelius created the first modern atlas (1527-1598)
the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole scale
what is the advantage of a map that shows only a small portion of the Earth's surface you get a lot more details about the area you are looking at
what advantage does a map that shows the entire globe have can effectively communicate processes and trends that affect everyone
all projections have some sort of distortion- list the four things that typically become distorted in various projections and explain the distortion -shape -relative size -distance -direction
what are the advantages and disadvantages of using the Robinson projection advantages- useful for displaying information across oceans disadvantages- by allocating space to the oceans the land areas are much smaller
what are the advantages and disadvantages of using the Mercator projection advantages- shape is distorted very little, direction is consistent, map is rectangular disadvantages- grossly distorted towards the poles making high latitude places look much larger than they really are
With regard to the Land Ordinance of 1785, the official survey system for the United States , define township and section township: an area of land that was divided into squares with six miles on each side and then was divided into 36 sections sections: 1 square mile of land that could be subdivided for re-sale by settlers and land speculators
the acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planets from other long distance methods remote sensing
what is the smallest area on the surface of the Earth that can be scanned as a single pixel 1 meter across
geographers use GIS to store "layers" of data- give 4 examples of types of data stored in a single layer -boundaries of countries -bodies of water -roads -names of places
the name given to a place on Earth toponym
identify 4 ways in which places can receive names -person -religion -ancient history -earlier occupants of the place
identify 3 reasons for which places sometimes change names -offensive place names -racial connotations -ethnic connotations
the physical character of a place site
list some characteristics of site climate, soil, elevation, vegetation, latitude, topography, water sources
human actions can __________________________ the characteristics of a site modify
the location of a place relative to other places situatuion
what role do familiar places have understanding situation of unfamiliar places comparing locations of unfamiliar places to familiar places
what place is designed as 0 degrees longitude Greenwich, England
what is the name for the line drawn at 0 degrees latitude equator
how is each degree of longitude or latitude further subdivided each degree is divided into 60 minutes (') and each minute is divided into 60 seconds (")
how many degrees of longitude do you need to travel across to pass through one "hour" of time (or one time zone) 15 degrees
how many time zones are there 24
where and why were standard time zones first adopted first adopted in the United States to avoid confusion of the railroad when it traveled through many time zones when used for transportation
what is the longitude of the International Date Line 180 degrees
an area of Earth defined by one or more distinctive characteristics region
one contemporary approach to studying landscape is called the regional studies approach- what do geographers who adopt this view believe regarding regions cultural landscape is an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group
geographers using the regional studies approach argue that the distinctive landscapes of different regions result from what 2 things social relationships and physical processes
an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics ex: countries or local government units formal region (uniform region)
an area organized around a node or focal point ex: reception area of a TV station functional region (nodal region)
an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity ex: tri-city area of Batavia, Geneva vernacular region (perceptual region)
how does a geographer conclude that 2 (or more) phenomena are "spatially associated" meaning that they have some sort of cause and effect relationship by integrating other spatial information about people, activities, and environments
what 2 meanings of culture do geographers study what people take care of and what people care about
a geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships cultural ecology
a 19th & early 20th century approach to the study of geography that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences environmental determinism
the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions but people have the ability to change them possibilism
what are the types of climates geographers identify (by letter and name) A:tropical climates B:dry climates C: warm mid-latitude climates D: cold mid-latitude climates E: polar climates
in what major way does climate influence human activities it influences where people decide to settle; humans have a limited tolerance for extreme temperatures and precipitation levels
list the 4 major biomes, or major plant communities found naturally on Earth forest biome, savanna biome, grassland biome, desert biome
what are the 2 major problems geographers are concerned with as far as soil is concerned erosion and depletion of nutrients
how has modern technology played a role in gloabalization -it has made communication and transportation easier -it has "closed the gap" between countries
in what ways is globalization of culture manifested in the landscape- provide an example by cultural beliefs ex:fast food companies having the same appearance in different countries
in what ways has the communications revolution played a role in globalization- provide an example promotes globalization of culture, but also permits preservation of cultural diversity ex: TV channls
provide an example of a reaction against globalism and globalization people starting riots over new trends because they don't want their culture to fade away
the ____________________ of a feature in _______________________ is known as its distribution arrangement; space
the frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area density
the country's total population divided by its area. large population does not mean large density- density considers arithmetic density
the number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture physiological density
the number of farmers per unit area of farmland agricultural density
the spread of something over a given area concentration
list the two different types of pattern given in the text geometric pattern and irregular pattern
what role does gender play in geograpahy activities that people participate in depend on gender ex: ball fields are more likely to be used by boys and take up more space than dance studios in a community
in what way does ethnicity play a role in geography areas designated to appear to or repel to cultural groups ex: bar that appeals to whites may repel a person of color
in what way does sexual orientation play a role in geography homosexuals may be drawn to a place to reinforce spatial interaction with other gays ex: communities of Gay couples
the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communication and transportation systems space-time compression
in the past most interaction between places required what physical movement of settlers, explorers and technology
give some examples of things that retard interaction among groups -unequal access to electronics -oceans and deserts
describe the phenomenon known as distance-decay the farther away someone is from another, the less likely they are to interact, so as contact diminishes with increasing distance it eventually disappears
what type of diffusion is this: when something originates at a hearth and diffuses from there ex:political features in the United States came primarily from Europe hearth
what type of diffusion is this: the spread of an idea through physical movement of people ex: primary language in the United States is English because the Europeans who migrated here spoke English relocation diffusion
what type of diffusion is this: spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority ex: hip-hop or rap music hierarchical diffusion
what type of diffusion is this: rapid widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population contagious diffusion
what type of diffusion is this: the spread of an underlying principle even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse ex: innovative features of iPhones stimulus diffusion
Created by: dancer2024
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