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Catholic Reformation

Reformation Exam

Who were the Theatines? Founder: Bishop Gian Pietro Carafa Sought to groom devout and reform-minded leaders at the higher levels of the church hierarchy.
Who were the Capuchines? Sought to return to the original ascetic and charitable ideals of St. Francis. Were very popular among ordinary people.
Who were the Somaschi and the Barnabites? These groups directed efforts at repairing the moral, spiritual, and physical damage done to people in war-torn areas of Italy.
Who were the Ursulines? Group which established convents in Italy and France for the religious education of girls from all social classes and became very influential.
Who were the Oratorians? An elite group of secular clerics who devoted themselves to the promotion of religious literature and church music. Member: Catholic hymnist Giovanni Perluigi
Who organized the Society of Jesus? Ignatius Loyola
Who was Ignatius Loyola? Began a spiritual pilgrimage in 1521 after he had been wounded in his legs during a battle with the French. He passed his time reading Christian Classics. He wanted to serve the Church as a soldier of Christ.
What are Spiritual Exercises? Significance? Mental and emotional exercises designed to teach one absolute spiritual self-mastery over one's feelings. These exercises can create new religious people through disciplined study and regular practice. Won Protestants back to Catholicism.
What was the purpose of Spiritual Exercises? Were intended to teach good Catholics to deny themselves and submit without question to higher church authority and spiritual direction.
Purpose of the Council of Trent? To create a council to reassert church doctrine.
Who was Casper Contarini? The pope-appointed chairman of Council of Trent. Criticized the fiscal practices and simony of the papacy as the primary source of the Church's loss of esteem.
Where was the Council of Trent situated and how long did it last? Trent, Italy. Lasted for 3 sessions over a period of 18 years due to interruptions due to war, plague, and imperial and papal politics.
With whom did the Council of Trent give most of its control? Controlled mostly by the Pope with high Italian prelates. 4/5 of archbishops were Italian. University theologians, lower clergy, and the laity were not permitted to share in council decision.
Reforms made by Council of Trent? Council curtailed the selling of church offices and religious goods. They also strengthened the authority of local bishops. Bishops required to be visible, dress neatly, and to be better educated.
What did the Council of Trent deny? -Seven sacraments -transubstantiation -the withholding of the Eucharistic cup from the laity. -Clerical celibacy -reality of purgatory -veneration of saints, relics, sacred images. -granting of letters of indulgence.
What social group was fond of the Reformation? Peasants. Reformation promised them political liberation and social betterment.
What was Pope Louis X's Jubilee Indulgence? It promised forgiveness of all outstanding unrepented sins upon the completion of certain acts.
Martin Luther's Religious Beliefs? Faith Alone Emphasis on Bible Priesthood of all believers Reduced sacraments Denial of free will Role of clergy (start schools to learn vernacular, could marry) View of salvation (Many people were sinners)
What was the Treaty of Augsburg? 1555- Ruler of a land can determine whether Catholic or Lutheran.
Why was Martin Luther successful? (POL/MIL) -German Princes vs. Italian Habsburgs -Elector of Saxony (FtW) protected Luther -New German emperor elected. (Rise in nationalism) -Wars of Charles V vs. French Ottomans
Why was Martin Luther successful? (SOC/ECON) -Silver and gold imported from Europe created inflation (Germany was prosperous) -No taxes to Rome -church lands -peasant revolt
Why was Martin Luther successful? (CULT/INTELL) -Vernacular -printing press -church corruption -Northern Humanism already discusses church corruption.
Anglicanism King of England is head of Church. 1534 - Act of Supremacy 1549-1552 - Uniformity High Church (Elaborate Mass) Low Church (Less flowery; without pope)
Lutheranism 1) Preserve Eucharist (Don't need a priest) 2) Modified Catholic hierarchy (bishops and ministers) 3) Tempered ritualism 4) Church/state relations (Princes on top of church)
Calvinism 1) Complete break with Catholic 2) Austerity (Cutbacks, work everyday and buy what you need) 3) High Moral Code 4) Predestination 5) Society and State: -church not governed by state, by consuls. -Deny Eucharist
Anabaptism 1) Major emphasis on preaching 2) Expect 2nd coming at end of world 3) Little ritual 4) Against taking oaths 5) Pacifists 6) Distrust state (won't pay taxes) 7) Communistic 8) Wide range of beliefs
Was the Protestant Reformation Progressive and Modern? NEGATIVE -As superstitious as Catholics -Same view of original sin and man's place in universe -Not tolerant -Not democratic and didn't believe in equality of man -Luther and Calvin preached charity over profit -resources = luck -"Age of Expansion" caused ri
Was the Protestant Reformation Progressive and modern? POSITIVE (CAPITALISM) Weber Thesis (1904) 1) Calvinism encouraged modern capitalism -moral ideas fit in with sober, commercial, and industrial classes -encouraged hard work -accumulation of capital -cut holidays, more work -"prosperity" sign of elect
Was the Protestant Reformation progressive and modern? POSITIVE (DEMOCRACY) 2) Calvinism encouraged development of Democracy. -churches run by "elect: - 1st step towards greater decision-making process. -Calvinism never worshiped state. State subject to moral judgment of church - denied omnipotence of state.
WAS THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION PROGRESSIVE AND MODERN? POSITIVE (ANABAPTISTS) 1) Political impact: distrust of state 2) Economic impact: Many were communists 3) Social impact: People are equal
Reformation fostered the following: Freeing of the intellect (countries seperate from one another) Literacy (need to know vernacular to read Bible) Nationalism (identity becomes religion) Colonization Important factor in Catholic reform Impact on women (literacy, divorce, teach childre
David Landes's The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Calvinism promoted rise of capitalism b/c it said everyday behavior leads to business success. Predestination created new type of businessman - one who worked in a way that mattered, and riches were bi-product "Literate Mothers matter"
Created by: hilldill22