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Lymphatic, Immunity,

Lymphatic, Immunity, and respiratory systems

QuestionAnswer
What is a pathogen Disease causing agent
Intact skin Mechanical external membrane which is heavily keratinized epithelial membrane forms physical barrier. Keratin also is resistant to most weak acids and bases, and to bacterial enzymes and toxins. Nonspecific or innate defense.
Mucous membranes provide barriers within body and line all body cavities open to exterior: digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Nonspecific or innate defense - Mechanical external membrane.
Pepsin Enzyme action which is in gastric juice (HCL), and helps digest proteins and also kill microorganisms. Nonspecific or innate defense.
Lysozyme Enzyme action in lacrimal fluid of the eye an enzyme that destroys bacteria. Nonspecific or innate defense.
Interferon Group of proteins which interfere with viral reproduction. Nonspecific or innate defense.
Inflammation WBC's responding to phagocytized pathogens. Increases the metabolic rate of tissues, speeding up their repair processes. Nonspecific or innate defense.
Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system Involves lymphocytes and macrophages: Directed against particular pathogen or subatance that initiates the immune response. systemic - not restricted to initial infection site. memory - after initial exposure, it recognizes and mounts stronger attacks
Phagocytosis Macrophages, which derive from monocyctes leave bloodstream enter tissues and develop into macrophages. Nonspecific or innate defense.
Lymphocyte Originate in bone marrow & latter come from lymphatic tissues. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system.
Origin of Lymphocytes Marrow, lymphocytes, thymus, t-lymphocytes (t-cells), or differentiate into b-lymphocytes (b-cells)
Antigens Large molecule foreign bodies to which t-cells and b-cells react. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system.
Hapten Smaller molecules that are not recognized as foreign until they combine with smaller molecules & become antigenic. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - antigens -
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) T-cells react with the antigen in a cell to cell response. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - lymphocyte functions.
Lymphokines Proteins released by t-cells to attract macrophages & leukocyctes. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - lymphocyte functions.
Lymphotoxins It is a protein that is produced by "killer" CD8+ T cells that kill the virally infected cells by producing holes in the cell's cell membrane. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - lymphocyte functions.
Growth inhibiting factor Released by t-cells to inhibit target cell growth. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - lymphocyte functions.
Interferon Released by t-cells to prevent or hamper target cell reproduction. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - lymphocyte functions.
Antibody mediated immunity (AMI) B-cells produced & secrete globular proteins (antibodies) to eliminate antigens. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system.
Immunoglobulin Soluble, globular proteins which constitute the gamma globulin portion of plasma proteins. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system.
Immunoglobulin structure 4 amino acids chains linked by sulfer atoms (disulfide bonds). 2 light chains & 2 heavy chains. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system.
Immunoglobulin function Terminal sequence is specific to antigen. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system.
Immunoglobulin g (IgG) Most abundant, controls bacterial & viral antigens & some toxins. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - types of immunoglobulins.
Immunoglobulin a (IgA) Prevents attachment of pathogens to epithelial cell surfaces. found in saliva, intestinal juice, milk and sweat. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - types of immunoglobulins.
Immunoglobulin m (IgM) Antigen receptors, functions in agglutination (clumps). Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - types of immunoglobulins.
Immunoglobulin d (IgD) Antigen receptors located on b cells (receptor). Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - types of immunoglobulins.
Immunoglobulin e (IgE) Causes mast cells to release histamines (vasodilation). Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - types of immunoglobulins.
Antibody actions Direct attack by antibodies. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system.
Agglutination Clumping. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - antibody actions.
Precipitation Form precipitates, or fall out. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - antibody actions.
Neutralization Removal of toxic properties. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - antibody actions.
Lysis Rupture cell membrane. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - antibody actions.
Complement Enzyme group triggered by antibody/antigen reaction. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - antibody actions.
Chemotaxis Attract leukocytes & macrophages. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - antibody actions - complement.
Opsonization Alteration of cell membrane (stresses cell so it doesn't reproduce). Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - antibody actions - complement.
Inflammation Prevents spread of infection. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - antibody actions - complement.
Clone Group of t-cells & b-cells that respond to a particular antigen. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses.
Plasma cells Newly formed b-cells (clones). Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses.
Antigen Will phagocytize and combine with b-cell. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses - plasma cell formation.
Lysozymes In macrophage digest the agent & display agent on surface of the macrophage. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses - plasma cell formation.
T-cells Activated by the displayed antigens. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses - plasma cell formation.
Activated t-cells Bind with b-cell. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses - plasma cell formation.
T-helper cells secrete lymphokins B-cells enlarge clone. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses - plasma cell formation.
Antibody secreting plasma cells from newly formed b-cells. result in plasma Cell formation, which is formation of memory cell antibodies that bind to recognized antigens & mark them for destruction. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses - plasma ce
Primary immune response Occurs at first exposure. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses.
Secondary immune response Future response after 1st exposure. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses.
Memory cells Dormant t-cells & b-cells to increase rate of secondary response. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - immune responses.
Vaccine (artificially acquired active immunity) Controlled exposure to an antigen. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - types of immunity.
Naturally acquired active immunity Exposure to live pathogen. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - types of immunity.
Artificially acquired passive immunity Antibodies in gamma globulin. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - types of immunity.
Naturally acquired passive immunity Fetus acquires immunity from mother for approx. 6-12 months. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - types of immunity.
Antigenic compatibility Tissue matching. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - transplant & tissue rejection.
Immunosuppressive drugs To lessen tissue rejection. Specific resistance (immunity) or adaptive immune system - transplant & tissue rejection.
AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome - T-lymphocyte virus Viral DNA is incorporated into normal DNA & can't be repaired.
AIDS transmission Must enter blood Sexual contact with infected person Use of contaminated needle Blood or blood product transfusion
Autoimmune disease Body's own tissues become targets for immune responses.
Lymphatic capillaries Microscopic, closed-ended tubes in interstitial spaces.
Lymphatic vessels Formed by joining lymphatic capillaries. Thicker walled with valves.
Lymphatic trunks Drain lymph from large regions of the body
Jugular trunk From head & neck
Subclavian trunk From arm
Bronchomediastinal trunk From thoracic region
Intercostal From thoracic region
Intestinal trunk From visceral organs of the abdomen
Lumbar trunk From lower body
Thoracic duct collecting duct, that drains lymph from left jugular, left subclavian, left bronchomediastinal, intercostal, intestinal, lumbar trunks.
Right lymphatic duct Collecting ducts, that drains lymph from right jugular, right subclavian, right bronchomediastinal trunks.
Tissue fluid function Originates from blood plasma which enters interstitial spaces by diffusion & filtration. Contains water, proteins, nutrients, and gases.
Lymph formation Fluid is forced into lymphatic capillaries due to high osmotic pressure in the interstitial spaces.
Lymph function - part 1 Carry foreign particles to lymph nodes.
Lymph function - part 2 Carry protein molecules & other particles from interstitial cells back into the blood stream.
Lymph movement Moves in response to skeletal muscle movement.
Lymph movement via osmotic pressure Movement in response to a gradient.
Lymph movement via breathing muscle movement Results in some lymph flow.
Unidirectional lymph flow Valves formed by overlapping endothelial cells.
Lymph flow blockage Results in edema
Lymph node structure Bean shaped
Hilum of lymph node Indentation where blod vessels & nerves enter and lymphatic vessels leave.
Nodules of lymph node Masses of lymphocytes & macrophages. Functional unit of lymph node.
Lymph sinuses Spaces through which lymph flows.
Lymph node location Found in groups or chains. widespread, but not found in the tissues of the CNS.
lymph node location - cervical region Head, face, scalp.
lymph node location - axillary region Arm, chest.
lymph node location - inguinal region Legs, lower abdomen.
lymph node location - pelvic region Pelvic viscera
lymph node location - abdominal cavity Abdominal viscera
lymph node location - thoracic cavity Thoracic viscera
lymph node function Lymphocyte production (act on foreign bodies) & macrophages
Thymus Located in mediastinum. Produces t-lymphocytes which are activated by thymosin.
Spleen Largest lymphatic organ, functions as a blood reservoir and filter.
Respiration Gas exchange between the cells of the body & the atmosphere. Involves breathing, gas exchange, gas utilization (cellular respiration).
Upper respiratory tract Outside thorax
Lower respiratory tract Within thorax
Nostrils Opening to the respiratory system, guarded by hairs to block large foreign particles.
Nasal septum Divides nostrils.
Nasal cavity Hollow space behind nose.
Nasal cavity position Separated from the cranial cavity by ethmoid & hard palette.
Nasal conchae Bony projections that divide the cavity into 3 passages.
Superior meatus Support mucous membranes & contain olfactory receptors.
Middle meatus Support mucous membranes & is an air passage.
Inferior meatus Support mucous membranes & is an air passage.
Mucous membranes Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium with a high concentration of goblet cells and blood vessels.
Role of mucous in nasal cavity Moistens & traps airborne particles.
Role of blood vessels in nasal cavity Warm air.
Role of cilia in nasal cavity Move foreign particles to digestive tract.
Sinuses Air filled spaces within skull with a mucous membrane that is continuous with the nasal cavity. Function to lighten the skull & resonate (voice).
Pharynx Air passage and speech.
Larynx function Houses vocal cords (voice box). Prevents entry of foreign objects into the trachea.
Larynx structure thyroid cartilage Adams's apple, caused by male hormones.
Larynx structure Cricoid cartilage Ring shaped, perched atop and anchored to the trachea inferiorly. Inferior to thyroid cartilage.
Epiglottis Flap that closes during swallowing to prevent entry of food/water into trachea.
Arytenoid cartilage Pair of small three-sided pyramids which form part of the larynx, to which the vocal cords are attached.
Corniculate cartilage Site of muscle attachment.
Cuneiform cartilage Stiffen soft tissues. Located between epiglottic & arytenoid cartilages.
False vocal chords Close larynx during swallowing.
True vocal chords Muscular folds in the mucous membrane that vibrate laterally when air is forced between them.
Words Formed by shaping sound with muscles in pharynx, tongue, lips.
Pitch Related to tension of vocal chords.
Intensity Forces air across vocal chords.
Trachea Windpipe, flexible tube in front of the esophagus that extends into the thorax where it splits into the right & left bronchi.
Trachea structure C-shaped bands of hyaline cartilage separated by smooth muscle and connective tissue.
Tracheal wall Ciliated mucous membrane with a high concentration of globlet cells.
Bronchial tree Branched air passages from the trachea to the alveoli.
Primary bronchi Right and left into each lung.
Secondary bronchi Or Lobar, lung branches - into 3 on right and 2 on left.
Tetiary bronchi Segmental, each supports a bronchopulmonary segment.
Bronchioles Segements to lobules, which are passages smaller than 1mm in diameter.
Terminal Bronchioles Branches from bronchioles, smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter.(50-80/lobule)
Respiratory Branchioles Respiration begins here. This is the first branch where gas exchange happens. 2 or more from each terminal.
Alveolar ducts 2-10 from each respiratory bronchiole.
Alveolar sacs Thin-walled outpouchings of the alveolar ducts.
Alveoli Respiration ends here. Thin walled sacs open to the alveolar sacs.
Respiratory tree structure Cartilaginous plates forming a cylinder. Amount of cartilage decreases & amount of muscle fibers increases as size of tube decreases.
Bronchial tree function Air passage from trachea to the alveoli.
Alveoli function Provide large surface area for gas exchange between the alveoli and capillary network. Approx 300 milion alveoli in average adult lung; approx 70-80 sq. meters of surface area; approx 25'x30'.
Lungs Spongy, cone shaped organ in thoracic cavity.
Lungs structure Each suspended by a bronchus & large blood vessels.
Lung hilus Region where bronchial tree enters lung.
Visceral pleura Serous membrane attached to lungs. Folds back at the hilus to become Parietal pleura.
Parietal pleura Lines thoracic cavity
Pleural cavity Space between visceral pleura & parietal pleura.
Right Lung structure Larger than left, has superior, middle, and inferior lobes.
Left lung structure Smaller than right, has superior, and inferior lobes.
Breathing Pulmonary ventilation. Involuntary response.
Inspiration 1.Diaphragm moves down due to nerve impulses. 2. External intercostal muscles contract; ribs rise. 3. Intra-alveolar pressure drops; pressure difference created. 4. Surface tension of serous membrane.
Surfactant Lipoprotein secretion from alveolar cells that prevent alveolar collapse.
Expiration 1. Relax diaphragm. 2. Relax intercostal muscles 3. Air is pushed out of the lungs by recoiling muscles/tissues.
Yawning Low oxygen concentration in blood.
Hiccups Spasmodic contractions of diaphragm while glottis is closed.
Coughing Clears lower respiratory tract.
Sighing Emotional responses
Laughing / Crying Emotional responses
Talking Intermittent release of expired air and opening and closing of the glottis.
Sneezing Clears upper respiratory tract. Uvula closes throat & forces air through nose.
Control Breathing is a rhythmic involuntary act, but can be controlled.
Respiratory center Poorly defined, and not in just one location.
Medullary rhythmicity area Basic rhythm & forceful breathing.
Pneumotaxic area Rate, duration of breathing.
Factors affecting breathing Oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, bicarbonate concentration. Monitored by chemosensitive areas located in the brain stem.
Chemoreceptors Located in aortas, are factors that affect breathing.
Inflation reflex Stretch receptors in thorax keep us from over-inflating lungs.
Emotional upset Fight or flight.
Hyperventilation Too much carbon dioxide.
Alveolar gas exchange, alveoli Microscopic clusters of air sacs.
Respiratory membrane Inner lining, single squamous. Dense capillary network. Elastic & collagenous fibers.
Diffusion across the membrane Higher concentration to lower concentration. Higher pressure to lower pressure.
Air properties O2=21% Nitrogen=78% Co2=0.04% Others=0.96%
Atmospheric conditions Atmospheric oxygen is always higher than blood oxygen because body burns oxygen. Body carbon dioxide is higher than atmospheric carbon dioxide because it's a waste product in body due to burning oxygen.
Partial pressure Pressure exerted by each gas.
Total atmospheric pressure 760 mm of mercury
Atmospheric oxygen 21%
160 mm of mercury 21% of 760 mm of mercury
Oxygen transport Hemoglobin in RBCs bind to oxygen in alveoli & becomes oxyhemoglobin. Amount of oxyhemoglobin depends on pressure of oxygen. Oxygen is released when pressure of oxygen decreases so that oxygen will move to area of lower oxygen concentration.
Amount of oxygen depends on? 1. Pressure of oxygen & pressure of carbon dioxide. 2. pH 3. Temperture.
Carbon monoxide Binds with hemoglobin more easily than oxygen.
Carbon dioxide transport Hemoglobin + carbon dioxide=carboninohrmoglobin. Carbon dioxide released when pressure of carbon dioxide is lower in alveolar region.
Bicarbonate ions h20+c02 - h2c03. h2co3 - h+ + hc03. Chloride shift happens when hc03 leaves RBC, chloride will move in, in order to maintain ionic balance of RBC cell membrane.
Cellular respiration In order to produce energy.
Bronchial asthma Active inflammation of the airway, walls are thickened with exudate, which reduces airflow.
Lung cancer Smoke paralyzes cilia that clear mucus from airways, allowing irritants and pathogens to accumulate. Free radicals and other carcinogens in smoke cause the cancer.
Emphysema Permanent enlargement of the alveoli, accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls.
Respiratory oxygen transport Carried in blood by: Bound to hemoglobin within RBC (4 molecules of hem) Dissolved in plasma
Respiratory carbon dioxide transport From tissues to lungs via: Dissolved in plasma. Bound to hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin. As bicarbonate ion in plasma. Carbonic acid in RBC.
Carbonic acid Co2 that has been absorbed into water.
Chloride shift Exchange of chloride & bicarbonate ions between RBCs and plasma to effect transport of co2 to maintain ionic equilibrium during respiration.
Carbonic anhydrase Enzyme that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of co2 & h2o to carbonic acid.
Deoxyhemoglobin Blue or purple chemical complex, formed when oxyhemoglobin releases its oxygen to the tissues.
Oxyhemoglobin A bright-red chemical complex of hemoglobin and oxygen that transports oxygen to the tissues.
Major factors of respiratory gas exchange Pressure & concentration.
Mechanism of inspiration Diaphragm & intercostal contract, increasing thoracic cavity volume, allowing lungs to stretch increasing volume. Lung pressure drops, air flows into lungs.
Mechanism of expiration Diaphragm & intercostal relax, decreasing thoracic cavity volume, lung volume decreases, intralung pressure increases, air gases flow out of lungs.
Non-respiratory air movements Used to clear air passageways; coughing, sneezing, laughing, crying, yawing, hiccupping.
Forces that determine amount of 02 released from RBC's P02, Temp, Blood PH, PC02, Blood concentration of BPG.
What are the respiratory functioning parts from largest diameter to smallest. Trachea, Primary bronchi, Secondary bronchi, Tertiary bronchi, Bronchioles, Terminal bronchioles, Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveoli.
Nonspecific resistance examples Species resistance, skin, mucous membranes, enzyme actions, interferon, inflammation, phagocytosis.
Species resistance a species is normally resistant to some diseases that affect other organisms, the body does not provide the proper environment.
Chloride shift When HC03 leaves RBC, chloride moves in, in order to maintain ionic balance of RBC cell membrane.
Epitaxis Nose bleed
Deglutition apnea Stopping of breathing during swallowing.
Atmospheric air Oxygen 21% Nitrogen 78% C02 0.04 % Other 0.96 %
Created by: hajet