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Female reproductive

female reprod. system

Mons Pubis Fatty tissue that cushions and covers the symphysis pubis. Covered with a triangular pattern of hair after puberty
Labia Major 2 folds of fatty tissue on either side of the vagina. Extends from the mons pubis to the perineum.
Labia Minora 2 thins folds of skin located within the folds of the labia majora. Extends from the clitoris towards the perineum.
Fourchette Posterior, oval shape between the labia minora. Contains : Urinary meatus, Vaginal opening, and Bartholins glands.
Bartholins glands Located on either side of vaginal opening. Secretes necessary substance that lubricates the vagina.
Clitoris Short, elongated, organ composed of erectile tissue. Located in upper area of Labia Minora.
Vaginal Orifice (Vaginal Introitus) Located in the lower part of the fourchette (vestibule). Below the urinary meatus.
Hymen Cherry! The layer of connective tissue (membrane) that forms a boarder around the outer opening of the vagina.
Perineum Area of skin between the vaginal orifice and the anus. Made up of muscular and fibrous tissue to support the organs in the pelvis
Urinary meatus Not part of the reproductive system. Is located just above the vaginal orifice.
Vagina Muscular tube that connects the uterus to the vulva. Approximately 3 in. long. lined with stretchable folds (rugae)
Functions of Vagina Birth canal, female organ of Coitus ( sexual intercourse), passageway for menstrual flow
Rugae Allows the vagina to expand during child birth.
Uterus Small, pear shaped hollow organ. Houses fertilized ovum during pregnancy
Ovum/Ova Eggs
3 Portions of Uterus Fundus, Body, Cervix
Fundus Dome- shaped portion along the TOP of the uterus.
Body Wider, central portion
Cervix Narrower; neck-like portion @ the bottom of the uterus.
Wall of Uterus (3 layers) Perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
Perimetrium Outer most layer
Myometrium Middle muscular layer
Endometrium Inner layer; highly vascular. The layer that builds up every month in anticipation of a fertalized ovum. Lining sheds during menses when fertilization doesn't occur.
Fallopian Tubes passageway for ovum from ovary to uterus. 2 tubules approx. 5 inches long. lined w/ cilia to propel ovum forward. open end of tube have FIMBRIAE.
Fimbriae fingerlike projects. draw the ovum in. Once the ovum have entered the fallopian tube it takes approx. 5 days to read the uterus.
ovaries Female gonads. almond shaped organs that are held in place by ligaments near the fimbriae of the fallopian tubes
what are ovaries responsible for? Producing mature Ova (eggs) and releasing them monthly (ovulation) Produce estrogen.
how many ova are females born with? Born with 700,000 ova. All the ova for our lifetime.
how many ovum are mature in our lifetime? approximately 400 ova mature, having the ability to fertilize during a woman's reproductive years (30-35years)
Breasts The mammory glands that are NOT part of the reproductive system.
what are breasts responsible for? Lactation ( the production of milk)
what are breasts composed of? Glandular tissue, adipose ( fatty) tissueC fibrous connective tissue.
what are the parts of the breasts? Nipple, Areola , Glandular tissue, Lactiferous glands
Define Nipple located in the center consisting of erectile tissue that is activated when stimulated
Define Areola Darken pigmented area surrounding nipple
What causes the rough appearance on the areola? sebacious glands called -- Montgomery's Tubules
Why do we have montgomery's tubules (glands)? They are only active during pregnancy and lactation. They produce a waxy substance to keep nips soft and prevent drying and cracking during breastfeeding.
Define Glandular tissue? Radiates outward around the nipple. 15-20 glandular lobes responsible for producing breast milk.
what do Lactiferous glands do? Allows milk to travel through passageways (glands) and brings the milk to the nipple.
When does the menstruation cycle begin ? Occurs with puberty, usually 1st menses is approximately 11-15years old. As early as 9 years old.
steps of the menses cycle 1. every month the endometrial lining prepares for an egg. 2. When it doesnt occur, the lining is shed and it flows from the body.
How long is an average cycle? every 28 days (q28 days) but can vary betwen 21-35 days
When does ovulation occur? midway through cycle, approximately 14 days after 1st day of LMP
LMP last menstrual period
How long is the bleeding period? varys between 3 - 8 days
How long does an average woman have a menstrual cycle for? Approximately 35 years up until menopause occurs
When does menopause occur? Approximately 52 years old, but can happen anytime after 40 years old.
How long must you wait to be diagnosed with menopause? after 12 consecutive months of not getting your menses.
What causes menopause? Ovulation and estrogen production stops.
Define amennorrhea Absence of flow
Define Dysmenorrhea Painful flow
AUB - Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Refers to: abnormal flow(heavy), excessive length of days bleeding (+8days), spotting between period cycles, menses occurring sooner than q21 days
What does AUB replace? Metrorrhagia and menorrhagia
Define cervicitis Acute or chronic inflammation of the cervix
What causes cervicitis? Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Haemophilus vaginalis, chlamydia.
Signs and symptoms of cervicitis 1. Thick, foul smelling discharge. 2. Pelvic pain. 3. Scant bleeding post intercourse. 4. Itching/bleeding external genitalia
Definition of cystocele Hemiation or downward protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina
Define endometriosis Presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus
How is endometriosis diagnosed Diagnosed through lapriscopicsurgery
Endometriosis treatment Symptomatic . (Hysterectomy)
Prenatal Care of the pregnant patient
Pregnancy The ovum is fertilized by sperm in Fallopian tube and implants in the wall of the uterus.
Where does fertilization occur? The outer third of the fallopian tube
Define zygote Fertilized ovum
Embryo First 2-8weeks
Fetus From Eight weeks till delivery
Term pregnancy 37-42 weeks
What are two accessory structures that also develope? Amniotic sac and placenta
What's an amniotic sac Thin walled, membranous sac that envelops and protects fetus
What's chorion Outer layer of sac
What's amnion Inner layer of sac
What's amniotic fluid Fills the sac and cushions and protects the fetus
What does the placenta provide Respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus
What pregnancy hormones does the placenta produce HCG ( Human Chorionic Gonadotropin), estrogen, progesterone, HPL ( Human Placental Lactogen)
Umbilical cord Arises from the center of the placenta and attaches to the umbilicus of the fetus. AKA ; LIFE LINE.
What does the umbilical cord transport Nutrients and waste products, oxygen and nutrients are also transferred from mother to baby across the placental membrane (barrier)
Physical changes during pregnancy Amenorrhea, uterus changes, cervix, vagina, breasts, urination, skin , weight
What's changes in your uterus? Increases in size, from 2 oz to 21 lbs
What happens to your cervix? Changes in color and consistency
What happens to your vagina? Changes in colors, increased vaginal discharge called leukorrhea.
What happens to your breasts during pregnancy? Increase in size, change in shape, areola darkens, montgomerys glands activate.
What changes in your urination during pregnancy? Increased frequency in 1st trimester and again in third trimester
What happens to your skin during pregnancy ? Increased warmth& sweating, increase in pigmentation on forehead, cheeks, and bridge of nose, darkened ventricle line down center of abdomen
What is chloasma? "Mask of pregnancy" , increased pigmentation changes on forehead, cheeks and bridge of nose.
What is linea negra? Darkened ventricle line down center of abdomen
What changes in your weight during pregnancy? Average weight gain of 25-30lbs
How do you find your EDD ( estimated due date)? LMP+7 days - 3 months +1 year
what are signs and symptoms of labor Braxton hicks( false labor) , bloody show, lightening
What is Braxton hicks Irregular contractions that may occur throughout pregnancy and more frequently towards the end.
What is bloody show? Vaginal discharge mixed with blood, may occur a few weeks before labor.
What is lightening? When the baby drops relieving pressure on the diaphragm, the mom can breathe easier.
During false labor contractions are... Irregular, short and infrequent with lower intensity
During false labor discomfort is felt in the... Abdomen and groin
During false labor walking... Relieves and decreases contractions s
During false labor effacement/dilation... Does not occur
During true labor contractions are.. Regular, more frequent, higher intensity, higher duration
During true labor discomfort is felt in.. Lower back, and radiates towards lower abdomen. Feels like intense cramps
During true labor walking... Strengthens and increases contractions
During true labor effacement/dilation occurs within.. The cervix progressively effaced (thins) and dilates ( enlarges)
Abortion Termination of pregnancy before fetus is of viable age
Spontaneous abortion Miscarriage
Ectopic pregnancy Pregnancy outside the uterus, usually occurring within the Fallopian tube.
Abruptio placenta Premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall
Hyperemeis gravidarium Severe vomiting resulting in dehydration and weight loss
Gestational diabetes Diabetes of pregnancy
GTT Glucose tolerance test
What does the gtt do? Scenes for diabetes; usually done approximately 24-28 weeks gestation
HELLP SYNDROME Can develop as a result of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia.
H Hemolysis of RBC's
EL Increased Liver Enzymes
LP Low platelet count
Placenta Previa The placenta attaches very low in the uterus and covers all or part of the cervix
Created by: jennifer980



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