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Unit 2 A&P

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Abdominopelvic Regions 1)Right inguinal region/2)Right hypochondriac region/3)Right lumbar region/4)Left hypochondriac region/5)Left inguinal region/6)Left lumbar region/7)Umbilical region/8)Epigastric region/9)Hypogastric(pubic)region
Hypo under
Pubis Anterior pelvis
Lumbus Loin
Anatomical position (landmarks) Hands at sides/Palms forward
Thoracis Chest
Epi on
Brachium Arm
Supine (landmarks) Lying down/face up
Carpus Wrist
Superficial characteristics (landmarks) External
Chodrias Cartilage
Prone (landmarks) Lying down/face down
Inguen Groin
Abdominopelvic Quadrants 1)Left Lower Quadrant(LLQ)/2)Left Upper Quadrant(LUQ)/3)Right Lower Quadrant(RLQ)/4)Right Upper Quadrant(RUQ)
Anatomy Study of structure
Lateral side view
Frontal front view
Anatomical direction refers to the patient's left or right
Physiology Study of function
Superior above
Posterior (Dorsal) closer to the back of the body
Anterior (Ventral) closer to the front of the body
Medial closer to midline of body
Lateral Farther from midline of body
Deep Farther from surface of body
Superficial Closer to surface of body
Distal Farther from point of attachment of limb to trunk
Proximal Nearer to point of attachment of limb to trunk
Contralateral On opposite sides of body
Ipsilateral On same side of body
Intermediate Between two structures
Planes flat surfaces that divide the body or organs in order to expose internal structures
Mesentaries Double layered folds of abdominal peritoneum/holds organs in place/contains blood and nerve supply.
Sagittal section Separates right and left portions.
Midsagittal plane Passes vertically through the midline and divides the body into equal right and left halves
Parasagittal plane divides the body into unequal right and left portions
Frontal (coronal)plane A coronal section separates anterior and sterior portions of the body; coronal usually refers to sections passing through the skull
Transverse plane Passes horizontally through the body and produces superior and inferior sections
Oblique planes pass through the body at an angle
Otic ear
Buccal cheek
Axial central part of the body, the head and trunk
Cephalic head
Cranial portion of the skull surrounding the brain
Facial face
Frontal forehead
Orbital eye
Nasal nose
Oral mouth
Mental chin
Occipital back of head
Cervical neck
Thoracic chest
Sternal breast bone
Mammary breast
Abdominal abdomen
Umbilical navel
Coxal hip
Pelvic pelvis
Pubic genital area
Dorsal back
Scapular shoulder blade region
Vertebral spinal column
Lumbar area of the back between the lowest rib and buttocks
Appendicular extremities or limbs
Acromial highest point of the shoulder
Axillary armpit
Brachial arm
Antecubital anterior(front)surface fo the elbow
Olecranal posterior(back)surface of the elbow
Antebrachial forearm
Carpal wrist
Manual hand
Palmar palm of the hand
Digital digits (fingers)
Inguinal groin where the thigh attaches to the pelvis
Gluteal buttocks
Femoral thigh
Patellar anterior(front)surface of the knee
Popliteal posterior(back)surface of the knee
Crural anterior(front)surface of the leg
Fibular lateral side of the leg
Sural posterior(back)surface of the leg
Tarsal ankle
Pedal foot
Plantar sole of the foot
Calcaneal heel
Digital digits (toes)
Tissues Group of similar cells that functions together to carry out specialized activities(come from the same point)
4 types of tissues 1)Epithelial/2)Connective/3)Muscle/4)Nervous
Epithelial tissue Covers surfaces/Lines internal passageways(cavities)/Form glands
Connective tissue Fills internal spaces/Supports other tissues/Transports materials/Stores energy
Muscle tissue Specialized for contraction
3 types of Muscle tissues 1)Skeletal/2)Cardiac/3)Smooth (walls hollow organs; ex:uterus, bladder)
Neural tissue Carries electrical from 1 part of the body to another
Characteristics of Epithelia Arranged in sheets/Contain nerve supply/high rate of mitosis/avascular/regeneration
Functions of Epithelia Protection/Control permeability/Sensation/Produce specialized secretions/absorption
Cell Junctions Forms bond with other cells or extra cellular material
Tight junctions formed by the fusion of the outer layers of 2 cells
Gap junctions makes a channel between 2 cells
Button desmosomes ties adjacent cells together
Classes of Epithelia Based on shape and layers
Based on Layers simple(1 thick cell layered)& stratified(multiple layers stack together)
Based on Shape Squamous(flat)/Cuboidal(cube)(square)/Columnar(tall and slender/nucleus looks like is sinking to the bottom)
Simple Squamous Epithelium functions:Reduces friction,controls vessel permeability,performs absorption and secretion
Stratified Squamous Epithelium Protects/Keratin proteins add strength and water resisrtance
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Kidney tubules(giant nucleus)
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium Sweat glands ducts & Mammary ducts
Transitional Epithelium Urinary bladder-tolerates repeated cycles of stretching without damage
Simple Columnar Epithelium Intestinal lining-absorption & secretion
Pseudostratifies Columnar Epithelium (false layered)-Trachea=cilia on surface is the easiest way to identify it.
Stratified Columnar Epithelium Salicary gland duct(protection)
Connective tissues Most abundant tissue in the body/Connect epithelium to the rest of the body/Provide structure(bone)/Store energy(fat)/Transport materials(blood)/Have NO contact with environment.
Epidermis provides mechanical protection and helps keep microorganisms outside the body.
Papillary layer layer of the dermis is composed of areolar connective tissue, and provides a junction between the epidermis and dermis, as well as ridges for gripping that appear in fingerprints.
Dermis The connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis of the skin.
Reticular layer body of the dermis is composed of the reticular layer which is responsible for holding hairs, sebaceous and sweat glands.
Subcutaneous layer(hypodermis) Fat storage and blood supply to dermis are taken care of in the subcutaneous layer.
Hair shaft The hair serves as protection for the surface of the body, both insulating and cushioning the underlying skin.
Pore of sweat gland ducts an exocrine gland, with an opening to the surface of the skin for sweat secretions.
Sebaceous gland Oil production is carried out in the sebaceous glands in order to maintain flexibility of the epidermis and the hair.
Hair follicle An accessory structure of the integument; a tube lined by a stratified squamous epithelium that begins at the surface of the skin and ends at the hair papilla.
Sweat gland duct The conduit from a sweat gland to the outer surface of epithelium is the sweat gland duct.
Nerve fibers Sensory information concerning pain are simple nerve fibers located in the dermis.
Sweat gland The production of sweat is carried out in the sweat glands.
Artery A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart and toward a peripheral capillary.
Vein A blood vessel carrying blood from a capillary bed toward the heart.
Fat Adipose, or fat, has a purpose: it assists in protection, energy storage and heat retention.
Keloid Thickened areas covered by shiny smooth epithelial skin
Dense Connective tissue(Dense Regular) fibers look like they run in the same direction
Dense Conn. Tissue(Elastic ligament) found between the vertebrae
Dense Conn. Tissue(Dense Irregular) Fibers run everywhere
Fluid Connective Tissues Blood & Lymph-watery matrix of dissolved proteins/carry specific cell types/(watery part of the plasma)
Supportive Connective Tissues Support soft tissues and body weight: Cartilage & Bone
Cartilage shock absorption & protection/no blood vessels (avascular)
Bone Calcified (made rigid by calcium salts, minerals)/weight support
Types of Cartilage Hyaline: Most common/Provides stiff but somewhat flexible support; reduces friction between bony surfaces/trachea, between tips of ribs and bones of sternum
Types of Cartilage Elastic: Provides support, but tolerates distortion without damage and returns to original shape/external ear
Fibrocartilage Resist compression/prevent bone-to-bone contact;limits relative movement/between pubic bones & intervertebral discs
Bone structure (livin' tissue) Most supportive connective tissue/Strong/resist shattering (flexible collagen fiber)
Osteocytes maintains the bones (bone cells)/communicate with the blood vessels and with one another by means of slender cytoplasmic extensions
Membranes physical barrier/lines or covers portions of the body/Consist of:Epithelium & Supported by connective tissue
Fascia Layers & wrappings of connective tissue that support or surround organs
Integumentary System Includes:Cutaneous Membrane (skin):Epidermis & Dermis
Integumentary System (continues) Accessory Structures: Nails/Hair/Exocrine glands.
Hypodermis stores fat/also gives fluidity to allow skin to move around
Functions of the Skin Protection/Excretion & Absorption/Body temperature regulation/Synthesis of vitamin D3/Stores lipids/Detection of sensation/Blood reservoir
Created by: autowns2001



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