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A & P 1/Exam #4

Chapters 12-16

QuestionAnswer
Central Nervous System (CNS) consist of the brain and spinal cord integration and command center
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) nerves to spinal and cranial carries messages to and from the spinal cord and brain
afferent PNS sensory and brings to
efferent motor and brings out
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous system innervates and regulates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands without conscious control
Parasympathetic (PNS) digest and rest decrease in BP, HR, RR, and pupil dilation increase in secretion parasympathomimetic sympatholytic acetolcholine
Sympathetic (PNS) fight or flight increase in BP, HR, RR and pupil dilation decrease in secretions sympathomimetic parasympatholytic epi or nore
function of neurons basic structural unit of the nervous system excitable cells that INITIATE and TRANSMIT electrical signals
What is a Synapse? the specific location where a neuron is functionally connected either to another neuron or an effector 2 types are chemical and electrical
Chemical Synapse between 2 neurons presynaptic neuron and postsynaptic neuron
electrical synapse composed of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron physically bound together
neurotransmitter chemical released from a neuron that delivers info to another cell
What is the most common neuron in the system? multipolar neurons (brain/spinal cord) and in the autonomic ganglia (motor neurons)
Define association neurons more numerous than motor neurons main function in spinal cord is that of inhibitory control also interconnect other cells with one another
Glial cells and functions also known as neuroglia found in CNS and PNS smaller than neurons and capable of mitosis DO NOT transmit electrical signals assist neurons with their functions, physically protect and help nourish neurons
What are graded potentials? relatively small, short lived changes in the resting membrane potential caused by movement of small amounts of ions across the plasma membrane
What is hyperpolarization? change in the membrane potential to a value more negative than the resting potential
Action potential is in relationship to what? depolarization and repolarization
Depolarization gain of positive charge within a neuron
repolarization return of polarity from positive back to negative
What does the integrated function of the NS imply? process of combining info from many sources neurons (nerve cells) have a part dendrites designed to combine or integrate info and then get connections called synapses sensory input-integration-motor output
What is the function of the synaptic cleft? extremely narrow fluid filled gap that helps decode the message and translates into a chemical message that then diffuses across the cleft to the postsynaptic cell
What are ganglion (ganglia)? structure containing a number of nerve cell bodies, typically linked by synapses and forming a swelling on the nerve fiber
Function of Acetylcholinesterase terminates synaptic transmission at the cholingeric synapses by hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
What is salutatory conduction? occurs in myelinated axons action potential from one node of Ranvier to the next node increase conduction velocity
Chemical classes of neurotransmitters amino acids gastronsmitters monoamines
Amino acids glutamate aspartate
gastronsmitters nitric oxide carbon monoxide
monoamines dopamine norepinephrine epinephrine
Schwan cells made up of white sheath myelinate the axons of the PNS supports the PNS
What are nerve cell adhesion molecules (N-CAMS) glycoprotein of immunoglobulin which binds to variety of other cell adhesion proteins to mediate adhesion, guidance, and differentiate during neural growth
What is a generator potential? stationary depolarization of a receptor that occurs in response to a stimulus and is graded according to its intensity
What cranial nerves originate from the pons? trigeminal nerve abducens facial nerve vestibulocochlear nuclei
What does the premotor cortex control? also known as the somatic motor located within the frontal lobe primarily responsible for coordinating learned, skilled motor activities-moving eyes
What is the arbor vitae internal region of white matter distribution pattern resembles branches of a tree
What parts consist of the brainstem? Midbrain pons medulla oblongata connects the cerebrum, diencephalon, and the cerebellum to the spinal cord
Midbrain superior function in motor movement, eye and auditory, and visual processing
Pons sensory and motor tracts located within and extends to connect the brain and spinal cord
medulla oblongata most caudal part of the brainstem communication between the brain and spinal cord
Where is cerebral spinal fluid found? clear colorless liquid that circulates within the ventricles and subarachnoid space exposed surfaces of the CNS and completely surrounds it
Functions of cerebral spinal fluid Buoyancy-ability to float in water, air or other liquid protection environmental stability insulation high concentration of glucose
Function and location of the hypothalamus anteroinferior region of the diencephalon -master control of ANS and endocrine -regulation of body temp -control of emotional behavior -control of food and water intake -regulation of sleep-wake rhythms
What is REM sleep associated with? Rapid eye movement distinguished by their EEG patterns and presence of rapid eye movement
What is coma? a deep and profound state of unconsciousness from which the person can't be aroused, even by repeated painful stimuli
Define Parkinson's Disease and associated symptoms slow progressing neurologic condition that affects muscle movement and balance deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine -stiff posture -expressionless face -slow voluntary movements -resting tremors (hands) -shuffling gait
What are the structures associated with the midbrain? cerebral peduncles superior cerebellar peduncles medial lemniscus substantia nigra optic tract superior/inferior colliculi
cerebral peduncles motor tracts anterolateral surfaces of midbrain
superior cerebella peduncles connecting cerebellum to the midbrain
medial lemniscus extends through the midbrain
substantia nigra bilaterally symmetrical nuclei with the midbrain
What structures are associated with memory? the limbic system hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus amygdaloid body-help store and code memories cingulate gyrus olfactory bulbs, olfactory tracts, olfactory cortex fornix anterior thalamic nuclei habenular nuclei, septal nuclei mammillary bod
What is broca's area? known as motor speech area located in most individuals within the inferolateral portion of the left frontal lobe
What separates the frontal lobe from the temporal lobe? Lateral sulcus-deep groove
What is procedural memory? implicit part of the long term memory responsible for knowing how to do things (motor skills)
What is declarative memory? explicit memory of facts and events and refers to those memories that can be consciously recalled
textbook definition of sleep natural, temporary absence of consciousness from which a person can be aroused by normal stimulation
What is epilepsy? condition a person experiences repeated seizures over time
Injury to the hypothalamus will result in ? can cause a number of deficiencies to the ANS, endocrine, body temp, emotional behavior, anorexia, bulimia, and sleep wake rhythms
What is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) concussion is the most common TBI that is temporary, abrupt loss of consciousness after a blow to the head or sudden stop of a moving head
What is vestibular nuclei associated with? cranial nuclei for vestibular nerve grouped in both the pons and the medulla in the brainstem
Where are the 2nd order neurons located? Dorsal horn/medullary nuclei which transmit impulses to the thalamus and cerebellum
Function of the anterolateral pathway also known as SPINOTHALAMIC PATHWAY located in anterior/lateral white funiculi of the spinal cord relay sensory input related to crude touch and pressure as well as pain and temp
Group C fibers capable of salutatory conduction? unmyleinated, detect info involving pain and touch, can't ascend to cerebral cortex Are NOT capable of salutatory conduction
What is reticular formation in the brain? Loosely organized mass of gray matter extends slightly into the diencephalon and the spinal cord functional brain system has both motor and sensory components
What are the names of the convolutions of the brain - cerebrum? gyri/raised ridges sulci/grooves
Brain waves and the types, What do they represent? EEG-electroencephalogram is used to test brain waves alpha- awake and resting beta-awake with mental activity theta-sleeping delta-deep sleep
What does brain wave amplitude indicate? standard deviations indicative of how much alpha activity is occurring
examples of serial processing one at a time, step by step mental tasks carried out in sequence
Spastic paralysis suggest involvement of what type of neurons? damage to upper motor neurons of primary motor cortex muscles can contract but can't relax
When you link new facts to old material in the brain, what process? association
What are electrolyte concentrations Charges and what do they do intercellularly and extracellulary
What would cause a bidirectional production of an impulse? when a nerve depolarizes
If posterior portion of a neural tube failed to develop properly, What type of result would you expect? spinal cord may be affected
You have a pt who accidentally had a transection between T1 and L1 under normal circumstances what would be the result of such injury? paraplegia/ paralysis of legs and lower body
Created by: vtlove116