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Immune System

Immunity Ability to resist harmful microbes
Non-specific components Act as barriers or eliminators of pathogens
Pathogen specific immunity Components of immune system that adapt themselves to each new disease
Innate (non-specific) immunity Born with eg cough, enzymes in tears and skin oils, mucus, stomach acid
Acquired immunity Developed with exposure to specific antigens
Antigen (Ag) Any substance (foreign to body) than evokes immune response.Proteins found on the surface of the pathogen. Unique to pathogen.
Antigen-presenting cells (ACPs) Mediate the immune response by processing and presenting antigens for recognition for certain immune cells. Include Dendritic cells and macrophages.
Latent period Interval between exposure to an infectious organism or a carcinogen and the clinical appearance of disease
Lymphocyte B Lymphocyte B cells produce antibodies that attach to antigens and make it easier for immune cells to destroy them.
T Cells Lymphocyte T cells attack antigens directly and help control the immune response.
Cytokines Released by T cells which control entire immune response
Passive immunity Due to antibodies produced in a body other than your own.
Immune system "memory" activated B and sensitized T cells. Allows body to react quickly to future exposures
Histamines Released by cells damaged by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat, etc.
Phagocytes Are attracted by histamines. Eat and present antigens to helper T cells
Pus Collection of dead tissue, dead bacteria and live and dead phagocytes
Allergy Exaggerated immune response
Anaphylaxis Severe whole body reaction to an allergen
Tonsil Oval mass of lymphoid tissue on each side of the throat
Spleen Largest lymphoid structure. Recycles blood cells and reservoir for blood.
Thymus Aids in the production of T cells
Lymph Nodes Traps for foreign materials contain white blood cells
Kidneys Filter blood
Electrolytes Essential minerals for fluid balance
Nephrons Microscopic blood filters found in kidneys
Renal Refers to kidney
Ureters Carry fluid from the renal pelvis to the bladder. Made of smooth muscle fibres
Urethra Connects urinary bladder to external opening
Cystoscopy (Cyst means bladder) Allows doctor to look inside urethra and bladder
Urologists Focus on kidneys and urinary tract
Nephrologists Focus on disorders of the kidneys and prescribe nonsurgical interventions
Nephrolithiasis (Lithos means stone) Kidney stones
Calculi Stones
Vesical Refers to bladder
Intravesical Inside the bladder
Infravesical Below the bladder
Hydronephrosis Kidney distends because flow of urine is obstructed.
Renal failure (acute) Sudden worsening of kidney function
Renal failure (chronic) Permanent or partial loss of kidney function. Diabetes and high blood pressure are most common causes.
Dialysis (Dia- means through) Process for removing waste and excess water from the blood for people with kidney failure
Antibodies Antibodies attach to a specific antigen and make it easier for immune cells to destroy the antigen.
Pathogen Anything that causes a disease.
Histamine Chemical released by damaged cells
Created by: Casita



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