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Digestion and Respir

Digestion and Respiration

Alimentary Canal Gastrointestinal tract
3 Exocrine salivary glands Parotid, submandibular and sublingual
Parotid Largest exocrine salivary gland.
Mastication Chewing
Bolus Roundish mass, especially of chewed food
Deglutition Swallowing
Mandible Lower jaw
Maxillae Upper jaw
Lingual Pertaining to the tongue
Saliva Starts digestion of starch/carbohydrates
Esophagus Muscular tube from pharynx to stomach
Pharynx Throat
Peristalsis Involuntary muscle contractions
Peptic ulsers Sores in stomach lining
Duodenum Upper small intestine
Diaphragm Muscle between chest and abdomen
Heartburn Regurgitation of gastric juices into the esophagus
Hiatal hernia Protrusion of a part of a a structure through the tissues normally containing it
GERD Gastroesophagal reflux disease
Inguinal hernia Groin area hernia. Abdominal contents hernia through a weak point in abdominal wall
Chyme semi-fluid mass of food, converted by gastric secretion, passes from stomach to small intestine
Villi Fingerlike projections on the mucus membrane of the small intestine. Latin for shaggy hair
Bile Secreted by liver. Aids in absorption and digestion of fat.
Gall bladder Sac attached by ducts to liver, in which bile is stored and concentrated
Colon Absorbs water and eliminates products of digestion
Diverticula Small pouches found in sigmoid area of colon
Diverticulitis Inflammation of diverticula
Cecum Beginning of large intestine
Type 1 diabetes Immune system kills insulin producing cells of the pancreas
Type 2 diabetes Insulin insensitivity -- body needs to make extra insulin. sugar in blood increases.
Retinopathy Eye disease
Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar
Coma Unconsciousness
Hyperglycemia High blood sugar. Both hypo and hyperglycemia can lead to coma
Solute Substance dissolved in solution
Solvent Substance that dissolves another substance to form a solution
Concentration gradient Difference in concentration in two areas
Diffusion Tendency to form uniform distribution
Ion Electrically charged atom or molecule
Sodium Ion Na+
Osmosis Diffusion of water
Respiration = Pulmonary ventilation O2 from air, return CO2
Conchae Bone tissue in nasal cavity
Larynx Voice box
Trachea Wind pipe
Cartilage Keeps trachea and adjacent bronchial tubes open
Cilia Motile, hair-like extension of cells
Upper respiratory system Mouth and throat
Epiglottis Protects trachea from food/liquid
Bronchus Any of the major air passages of the lungs that diverge from the trachea
Lower airway system First 20 divisions
Alveoli Bronchioli less than 1mm, microscopic air sacks
Diaphragm Sheet of muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity
Brain stem Automatically controls breathing
Emphysema Chronic disease difficulty in breathing
Asthma (bronchial) Narrowing of airwaves. Caused by spasm, edema, or mucus in the lumen
Lumen the canal of a tubular organ
Dyspnea "ill" "breath" difficulty breathing pnea = breath
Sleep Apnea Absence of breathing caused by upper airway obstruction during sleep
Recovery position 3/4 prone position
Prone Face down
Supine Face up
Patent Open
Pharynx Throat
Passive regurgitation Stomach contents collecting in the throat (question)
Aspiration pnemonia Stomach acid collecting in throat flows into lungs and attacks inner lining
Concentration Amount of dissolved substance per unit of volume
Created by: Casita