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teas A&P

teas ATI 6th edition study guide

the ___ system comprises the closed system of blood pumped around the body by the heart through a network of arteries, veins, and capillaries, as well as the open lymphatic system. circulatory system
the ____ or ____ system describes the movement of blood and lymph around the body. Which permits nutrient distribution, waste removal, communication and protection. cardiovascular and circulatory
the right lung has __ lobes and the left lung has ___ lobes. 3, 2
___ the movement of air in and out of the body via inhalation and exhalation ventilation
__ the windpipe, which connects the larynx to the lungs trachea
___ the amount of air breathed in a normal inhalation or exhalation tidal volume
___ is a lipid mixture secreted by alveoli(cells) of the lungs that reduces the surface tension thus preventing the alveoli from sticking together. surfactant
___ a tough, protective double membrane around the lungs and inside the chest cavity pleura
__ the passage of fluid to an organ or a tissue perfusion
____ a genetic disorder that affects the lungs and other organs, characterized by difficulty breathing, coughing up sputum, and lung infections cystic fibrosis
___ small passages in the lungs that connect bronchi and alveoli bronchioles
____ the main passageways directly attached to the lungs. bronchi
____ a lung disease characterized by inflamed, narrowed airways and difficulty breathing. asthma
____ tiny air sacs in the lungs where exchange of oxygen takes place. alveoli
___ are thin-walled structures that look like clusters of grapes and are the site of gas exchange bronchioles
the respiratory system works interdependently with the ___ system circulatory system
___ divides the body horizontally creating an upper (superior) and lower (inferior) body. transerve plane
____ if the cut is made exactly down the midline of the body, the right and left halves of the body are equal midsagittal section
___ divides the body lengthwise into right and left portions sagittal plane
___ means away from the center peripheral
___ means that the part is located in the center central
____ means that the body is away from the structure of the body ex: bones deep
___ means that a part is located on or near the surface of the body ex: skin superficial
___ means that a part is farther away from the point of attachment than is another part distal
___ means that the structure is nearer the point of attachment, often the truck of the body. proximal
___ means away from the midline of the body lateral
___ another word for posterior. means toward the back surface dorsal
___ another word for anterior. means toward the front surface (belly surface) ventral
____means that a part is located below another part or is closer to the feet inferior
____ the body is standing erect, with the face forward, the arms at the sides, and the toes and palms of the hands forward anatomical position
____ means that a part is above another part or is closer to the head superior
the middle of the body or towards the belly button is called medial
the back of the body or back surface is called posterior
the front of the body is called anterior
sagittal or median indicates ___ and ____ left and right
transverse or cross-sectional plane indications ___ and ___ top and bottom
coronal and frontal plane indicate __ and __ front and back
___ and ______ systems both consist of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. circulatory and respiratory
____ performs several functions, including providing a framework of support, protecting vital organs, articulating muscle to provide resistance for movement, and serving as a location for the synthesis of blood cells. bones
___ coordinates input from various sources to provide instructions for the body’s response to stimuli. brain
____ processes blood to remove wastes and to retain electrolytes and water. kidney
____ cells have large numbers of mitochondria to provide energy for movement. muscle
____ that secrete proteins have a large amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, glands
____ Planes dividing the body to describe locations: sagittal, coronal, and transverse. reference planes
_____ which stores and processes instructions contained in the DNA that tell the cell what its functions are. nucleus
_____ which convert energy present in chemical bonds of food accessible to the cell; mitochondria
____ carry out protein synthesis ribosomes
organs that work together are called ____ organ systems
Tissues are collected into ______, which carry out a single task, such as oxygenating blood (lungs) or filtering out wastes (kidneys). organs
Cells with the same function are collected into larger groups called _____ tissues
____ perform tasks including obtaining energy from food and reproduction. organelles
___ the basic structural unit of an organism from which living things are created. cell
_____ Standard positioning of the body as standing; feet together; arms to the side; with head, eyes, and palms of hands forward. anatomical position
the small amount of stale air (gas) in the lung is called _____ residual capacity
the breathing control centers of the _____ control respiration through monitoring carbon dioxide levels and blood ph. medulla oblongata and pons
the _____ performs the vital functions of transporting nutrients, wastes, chemical messengers, and immune molecules. cardiovascular system
the closed ____ system is a double looped system consisting of thick walled arteries that transport blood away from the heart, thinner-walled veins that transport blood to the heart, and capillaries made of a single layer endothelium that form a network. circulatory system
the closed double-loop system transports ____ blood.
the pulmonary loop carries ___ oxygenated blood
systole indicates ____ of the heart muscle causes blood to push against the muscular walls of the arteries to a max pressure. contraction
diastole is ___ of the heart muscle elasticity in the vessel walls recoils and the pressure decreases to a minimum. relaxation
the systole causes the __ sound lub
the diastole causes the __ sound dub
the lub-dub sound are contractions controlled by the _____ called the _______. pacemaker, sinoatrial node
____ contains nutrients, hormones, antibodies, and other immune proteins blood plasma
____ cells contain hemoglobin and transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. red blood cells
_____ dissolves in plasma and is removed by the lungs. carbon dioxide
___ blood vessels that deliver (carry away) blood from the heart into other parts of the body arteries
____ small blood vessels that walls are only one cell thick, and connect arterioles to venules. they exchange gases and nutrients. capillary
___ refills the heart with blood. which is also known as the rest phase (when the chambers relax and refill) diastole
___ the muscle that pumps blood throughout the body heart
____ the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body hemglobin
____ white blood cells which protect the body against disease leukocyte
____ clear fluid that moves throughout the lymphatic system to fight disease and it is filtered through hundreds of small organs. lymph
___ a subtype of white blood cell found in lymph lymphocyte
___ the pale yellow component of blood that carries red blood cells, white cells, and platelets throughout the body. plasma
___ the portion of the cardiac cycle in which the heart expels blood systole
___ blood vessels that carry blood to the heart vein
____ of proteins is initiated in the stomach by the action of the enzyme pepsin, chemical digestion
There are three main secretions of the stomach: pepsinogen (____ cells), mucus (_____ cells), and hydrochloric acid (_____ cells). chief, goblet, parietal
contents (now called chime) pass through the pyloric sphincter into the ______, which is the first part of the small intestine. duodenum
In the duodenum, chyme is neutralized by _____ in pancreatic secretions. bicarbonate
The duodenum receives______ juices from the _______, which helps neutralize acid chyme. alkaline bile, gall bladder
_____ The opening of the rectum from which solid waste is expelled. anus
____ A mass of food that has been chewed and swallowed. bolus
___ The semifluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestine. chyme
______ The break down of food by enzymes for absorption. enzymatic digestion
___ The organ that stores bile. gallbladder
____ Also known as the colon, where vitamins and water are absorbed before feces is stored prior to elimination. large intestine
____ The organ that produces bile, regulates glycogen storage, and performs other bodily functions. liver
___ The oral cavity at the entry to the alimentary canal. mouth
____ The gland of the digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin and secretes pancreatic juices. pancreas
_____ A series of muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract. peristalisis
____ The last section of the large intestine, ending with the anus. rectum
____ The clear liquid found in the mouth, also known as spit. saliva
____ The part of the GI tract between the stomach and large intestine that includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, where digestion and absorption of food occurs small intestine
_____ The organ between the esophagus and small intestine in which the major portion of digestion occurs. stomach
Salivary amylase, salivary lipase are produced in which organ? mouth
Gastric lipase, pepsin(ogen), HCl are produced in which organ stomach
Bile (stored in gall bladder) is produced in which organ liver
Pancreatic juice (bicarbonate, lipase, trypsin(ogen), proteases and amylase) is produced in which organ pancreas
Brush border enzymes (proteases, lactase, disaccharidases) is produced in which organ small intestine
Gastrin, ghrelin is a major hormone of? stomach
Secretin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon are major hormones of pancreas
Cholecystokinin, somatostatin, secretin, motilin are major hormones of small intestine
This system affects every part of the body and is vital in controlling involuntary and voluntary movement. neuromuscular system
____ are long bundles of axons that transmit signals from the central nervous system. nerves
_____ nerves send messages to the central nervous system, sensory/ afferent
______ nerves send messages out to the muscles motor/ efferent
The _______ nervous system controls involuntary actions involving cardiac and smooth muscle, such as heart rhythm, digestion, and breathing. autonomic/ involuntary
____ nerve signals make skeletal muscles do a deliberate action such as walking, throwing, or typing. voluntary
each muscle consistes of long strands of proteins called ____ (thin filaments) and ______ (thick filaments). actin, myosin
Skeletal muscles work by contracting
_______ The part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates unconscious body functions such as breathing and heart rate. autonomic nervous system
___ a nerve fiber axon
___ shortening or elongating a muscle to perform muscle actions contraction
__ Without intentional control involuntary
____ Soft tissue that produces force and motion to move the body muslce
___ A bundle of axons that transmits electrical impulses to peripheral organs. nerve
____ An involuntary movement in reaction to a stimulus reflex
___ Release of tension (exhalation) relaxation
___ The structure that allows neurons to pass signals to other neurons. synapse
___ performed on purpose voluntary
male gametes= sperm
___ The passage that forms the lower part of the uterus. cervix
___ Female sex hormones. estrogen
____ Tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. fallopian tubes
____ Organ in which eggs are produced for reproduction. ovary
____ Organ for elimination of urine and sperm from the male body. penis
____ The gland in males that controls the release of urine and secretes a part of semen that enhances motility and fertility of sperm. prostate
___ The pouch of skin that contains the testicles scrotum
____ The organs that produce sperm; also called testes. testicles
______ The hormone that stimulates male secondary sexual characteristics. testisterone
___ The tube that connects the bladder to the exterior of the female body. urethra
___ the womb uterus
____ The tube that connects the external genitals to the cervix. vagina
____ The duct in which sperm moves from a testicle to the urethra. vas deferens
female gametes= eggs
the ___ system contains organs and glands that do these two things. 1. protect body 2. regulate temp
___ is the largest organ? skin
epidermis is the skin outer layer
dermis is the skin middle layer
subcutaneous or hypodermis is the skin inner layer
skin also produces vitamin D
___ to become narrower constrict
___ to become wider dilate
___ elimination of metabolic waste from the body excretion
__ an organ that secretes a substance gland
___ an organ system comprised of skin and its associated organs integumentary system
___ the thin layer of tissue hat covers the body skin
___ perspiration excreted by sweat glands through the skin sweat
the ___ system is a set of organs that secrete hormones directly into the Circulatory system endocrine
the glands in the endocrine system send ____ through the blood to control the function of that organ chemical messengers
the pancreas releases insulin
the ___ regulates many body functions including blood production, appetite, reproduction, brain function, sleep, salt & water homeostasis, growth, sexual development, response to stress ad injury. endocrine system
__ a gland above the kidney that produces hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and other functions. adrenal
__ a chemical messenger produced by a gland and transported by the blood stream that regulates specific processes in the body. hormone
____ an endocrine gland in the neck that produces parathyroid hormone parathyroid
____ a small gland near the center of the brain that secretes melatonin pineal gland
___ the endocrine gland at the base of the rain that controls growth and development. pituitary
___ the lymphoid organ that produces T-cells thymus
__ the gland in the neck that secrets hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate. thyroid gland
____ is a necessary function for salt and water homeostasis and getting rid of wastes. excretion
The organs in the _____ system, or urogenital, system function in the excretory process. genitourinary
kidneys make __ and filter ___ urine, blood
urine travels through the ____ to the bladder ureters
Kidneys also stabilize ___ and maintain ___ it also produces the active form of ____. water balance, blood pressure, vitamin D
The functional unit of the Kidney is the ____ it is responsible for filtering and exceretion nephron
___ play a vital role in maintaining blood and blood pressure. kidneys
The kidneys also produce_____, a hormone that regulates blood pressure by retaining or removing water and salt. renin
___ The systemcomprised of the heart and blood vessels. cardiovascular system
____ The pair of organs that regulate fluid balance and filter waste from the blood kidneys
____ The two branches of the abdominal aorta that supply the kidneys renal arteries
____ The outer layer of the kidney. renal cortex
____ The innermost part of the kidney. renal medulla
____ The center of the kidney where urine collects before moving to the ureter renal pelvis
___ Veins connecting the kidney to the inferior vena cava that drain the kidney and carry blood purified by the kidney. renal vein
____ The main nitrogenous part of urine. urea
____ The duct that conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder. ureter
____ The structure that stores urine in the body until elimination. urinary bladder
____ Liquid waste matter excreted by the kidneys. urine
The ______ prevents entry of pathogens through the presence of barriers composed of the skin and secretions such as acid, enzymes, and salt. immune system
if the external barrier of the immune system fails then the _____ identifies, targets, and remembers the pathogen. adaptive immune system
The _____ protects the body from disease-causing agents. immune system
there are two types of immune systems they are? innate and adaptive
These are all examples of Skin, Hair, Mucus, Earwax, Secretions (acid, salt, enzymes), Normal flora. Antimicrobials, Inflammation, Interferons. Complement. NK lymphocytes, Phagocytes (including APC) innate immune system
the innate immune system is nonspecific response
These are all examples of Reaction: Cytotoxic T-cells kill pathogen Prevention: B-cells produce antibodies Activated by antigen and helper, T-cells Helper T-cells are activated by APC adaptive immune system
the adaptive immune system responds to specific antigens
____ Able to change as needed. adaptive
____ A blood protein that counteracts a specific antigen. antibody
____ A toxin that stimulates an immune response in the body. antigen
____ A cell that displays foreign antigens with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces. antigen presenting cell
____ A substance that kills or inhibits growth of micro-organisms with minimal damage to the host. antimicrobial
___ Cells that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens. B-cells
____ and ______ cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) Macrophages and dendritic cells
Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through _____ toll like receptors
Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through toll like receptors and trigger an inflammation or _____ antigen presentation
The _____ immune system responds by remembering signature molecules, called antigens, from pathogens to which the body has previously been exposed. adaptive
___ lymphocyte cells that attack host cells that harbor intracellular pathogens; natural killer (nk)
Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved _______ pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS)
Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through _____ and trigger an inflammation or _____ presentation. toll-like receptors, antigen
The ______ system responds by remembering signature molecules, called antigens, from pathogens to which the body has previously been exposed. adaptive immune system
The adaptive immune system’s functional cells are lymphocytes called____-cells and ___-cells. T & B
When a ____ T-cell encounters a cytotoxic T-cell that recognizes the same antigen, it produces ____ that activate the ____ T-cell. helper, cytokines, cytotoxic
The helper T-cell also activates ____-cells that recognize the pathogen’s signature antigen. B
this induces the B-cell to multiply rapidly into secretory cells called ____ cells, which produce large amounts of an _____ (Ig, or immunoglobulins) that can bind the antigen. plasma cells, antibody
If antigen levels subside, plasma cells stop making antibodies and produce ____ cells that remember the antigen. memory
Overactive immune systems can target innocuous foreign particles like pollen, causing the body to go into overdrive by producing huge amounts of IgE that trigger histamine release from mast cells, causing _____ with sneezing and mucus secretion. allergies
Alternately, the immune system can mistakenly target a host molecule as a foreign antigen, leading to ______ autoimmune disease
____ A divider between parts of the body. barrier
____ The group of proteins in blood serum and plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particulate antigens. complement
___ Antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material and present it to T-cells. dendritic cells
____. An antibody. immunoglobulin
___ inborn. innate
______ A large white blood cell that ingests foreign material. macrophage
_____ A lymphocyte that responds to an antigen upon reintroduction memory cell
______ Ingestion of particles by a cell or phagocyte. phagocytosis
____ A white blood cell that produces a single type of antibody. plasma cell
___ White blood cells that mature in the thymus and participate in immune response. T-cell
The _____ has three main functions: movement, protection, and metabolism. skeletal system
Bone is a dynamic_____ that is made and broken down according to need. tissue
___- Hard, calcified material that makes up the skeleton. bone
____ a group of diseases that affect collagen and result in fragile bones. brittle bone disease
____ Microscoping canals in ossified bone. canaliculi
____ Tough, elastic connective tissue found in parts of the body such as the ear. cartilage
____ The primary structural protein of connective tissue. collagen
____ Channels in bone that contain blood vessels and nerves. haversian canal
____ Layers of bone, tissue, or cell walls. iamellae
_____ Flattened bone cells that come from osteoblasts. lining cells
___ Degenerative joint disease osteoartritis
___ Cells that make bone. osteoblasts
____ Cells that remove bone. osteoclasts
___ bone cells osteocytes
____ have long compact hollow shafts containing marrow. long bones
____ ends are usually made of spongy bone with air pockets. long bones
____ are wider than they are long. short bones
____ are not hollow but contain marrow. flat bones
____ have nonsymmetrical shapes and include the bones of the skull, knee, and elbow. irregular bones
humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, and fibula are examples of ___ long bones
The bones of the toes (metatarsals) and collarbone (clavicle) are ____ short bones
scapula, ribs, and sternum are examples of ___ flat bones
Typically, bones are articulated to other bones through ____and to muscle through ____. ligaments, tendons
The articulating surfaces of bones are covered in _____ which prevents them from grinding against each other. hyaline cartilage
Bone is covered by a fibrous sheath called the periosteum
__ which contains nerves and blood vessels. periosteum
Bone is synthesized in tubular structures called osteon
____ Cylindrical structures that comprise compact bone. osteons
___ A disease that causes brittle, fragile bones. osteoporosis
___A progressive disease that causes joint inflammation and pain. rheumatoid arthritis
____ Channels in bone that transmit blood vessels and communicate with Haversian canals. volkmann canal
___ disease (osteogenesis imperfecta) is due to a genetic defect in the _____ and causes bones to break easily. brittle bone, collagen matrix
___ immunity is a defense that employs B-cells to create antibodies that tag pathogens later. antibody-mediated
If the external barrier is breached, the ___ line of defense is the internal aspect of the ___ immune system, a collection of nonspecific cellular responses ( inflammation, production of interferion, ingestion of pathogens by phagocytes). second, innate
Contraction of the atria is caused by the impulse of the _____ node sinoatrial
The ___ fiber impulse causes the contraction of the ventricles Purkinje
A _____ (a heart attack) occurs when the cardiac muscle dies as a result of blood flow blockage to that tissue. myocardial infarction
___ of the small intestine provide a greater nutrient-absorbing surface area. When they are damaged the nutrient-absorbing surface area is _____ Villi, diminished
The _____ is a section of the brain that serves as an integration center between the endocrine and nervous systems. hypothalamus
____ is produced by the skin when a cholesterol-based precursor is modified by the presence of ultraviolet radiation. Vitamin D
____ liberate calcium from bone-bound reserves. this mineral resorption removes calcium from bone so it can enter the bloodstream osteoclasts
_____ secretions allow mineralization in bones that is inhibited elsewhere in the body. osteoblasts
___ are star-shaped cells that maintain bone and are able to sense physical stress. osteocytes
___ is a type of bone having fewer osteons and, therefore, lighter than compact (dense) bone, it is a site of red bone marrow production spongy bone
___ is a space inside of long bones that contains yellow bone marrow. Medullary cavity
___ are the structures in cells where proteins are made ribosomes
___ causes increased residual volume because its destruction of elastic lung tissue allows greater than normal lung expansion with reduced/ poor recoil and increased residual volume. Emphysema
the ___ lining is the normal site for implantation of a zygote. Uterine
___ is the movement of substances from the pertitubular capillaries to the renal tubule. therefore, this is the opposite of re-absorption. secretion
___ returns substances from the renal tubule to peritubular capillaries. reabsorption
the ___ controls balance and equilibrium cerebellum
the ___ consists of four lobes that control various functions, which do not include balance and equilibrium. cerebrum
the ____ lobe is the part of the cerebrum that controls processes such as language and sensory information parietal
the ___ lobe is the part of the cerebrum that controls vision. occipital
_____ is a signal traveling through a chain of neurons, rather than along a single neuron. reverberation
___ describes one way to create an action potential, rather than describing an action potential jumping from node to node in an axon. Temporal summation
___ conduction is the process by which an action potential jumps from node to node on a myelinated axon saltatory
___ refers to passing an electrical impulse from on nerve to another, rather than the conduction of an action potential along one nerve ricocheting
They're four basic types of tissues and they are Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues
___ tissue covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, and serves as a protective barrier. epithelial
___ tissue connects other tissues to each other and serves to bind ans support body parts. connective
___ tissue moves the body and its contents by contraction muscle
__ tissue receives stimuli from the internal or external environment and communicates through electrical impulses with the rest of the body. nervous
the kidney main function is to ___ and filter ___ from blood. recycle nutrients, wastes
respiratory system performs the function of exchanging the gas of CO2 for O2
the term skull means cranium
the process of aerating the lungs is known as ____ ventilation.
the ____ includes the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, pharynx, glottis and the larynx. upper respiratory tract
the ____ begins at the trachea and extends into the lungs via repeated branching of bronchus into bronchioles and ending at the alveoli, where gas exchange occurs. lower respiratory tract
the __ is a shared passageway where both air and food contains an opening for the digestive system, as well as the continuation of the respiratory system at the glottis. pharynx
a flap called the ____ covers the opening of the glottis during swallowing to prevent food and liquids from entering the lungs epiglottis
the ___ is the passageway for air through the vocal chords and leads to the larynx, commonly called the voice box. glottis
___ is produced in the larynx when air from the lungs is forced against the vocal chords sound
The ___ begins the lower respiratory tract. trachea
___ also known as the windpipe, consists of a rigid tube of cartilaginous rings and lies anterior to the esophagus. trachea
the _____ splits into two main branches that enter the lungs as right and left primary bronchi. trachea
the walls of the alveoli are single layer of ___ tissue, which allows for the simple diffusion of gases in and out. epithelial
the alveoli are surrounded by ___ whose walls also consists of ___ cells. capillaries, epithelial
inhaled oxygen diffuses into the ___ in the surrounding capillaries and from there into the nearby tissues. red blood cells
___ diffuses out of the tissues into the red blood cells and then the alveoli to be exhaled from the lungs. carbon dioxide
increasing levels of C02 causes an increase in ___ ions, which makes the blood more acidic. H+
The ___ is the amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration or deep breath. total lung capacity (TLC)
the ___ is the amount of gas that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration, as in exhaling after a deep breath. vial capacity (VC)
the vital capacity plus the residual volume is equal to the total lung capacity
water in the lungs causes and increase in surface tension making the water "sticky" in the alveoli which causes both sides of the alveoli to stick together causing collapse of the lungs, known as ____. atelectasis
lung compliance depends on two characteristics the __ of lung tissue and the ___ surface tension elasticity, alveolar.
Asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer cause increased resistance to lung expansion, resulting in a low ____. compliance
___ is a recessive gene mutation causes the normally slippery mucous secreted in the lungs to become thick and sticky. this atypical mucus can clog the airways, leading to severe breathing problems and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. cystic fibrosis
___ can cause shortness of breath due to the decreased concentration of oxygen in the air. high altitudes
the ____ is made up of four main components: the heart, blood vessels, blood, and lymphatic system. cardiovascular system
The ___ is a large muscular organ comprised of cardiac tissue called __ and is surrounded by a sac called the ____. heart, myocardium, pericardium
the heart contains four chambers divided by a _____. median septum
The two ___ are the receiving chambers (heart) and the two ____ are the pumping chambers. superior atria, inferior ventricles
the atria and ventricle are separated by the _____ valves. atrioventricular
The right side of the heart pumps _____ from the heart towards the lungs and is called the ____ system. deoxygenated blood, pulmonary
the left side of the heart receives ___ from the lungs and pumps it toward the rest of the body parts and is known as the ____ system. oxygenated blood, systemic
The blood pumped by the heart travels through the extensive ___ of the ___. conduits, vessles
___ have a thick layer of smooth muscle in their walls to withstand the pressure of the forceful heartbeat. arteries
___ carry blood from body parts towards the heart veins
__are connected to the capillary beds via smaller branches called venules. veins
___ have one-way valves to prevent blood from flowing back into the system. veins
the ____ is a straw-colored liquid that contains water, immune proteins, and other nutrients. plasma
____ red blood cells erythrocytes
____ white blood cells leukocytes
___ are a major component of blood and contain the protein ____, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and helps return carbon dioxide from he tissues back to the lungs. red blood cells, hemoglobin
The ____ function in the immune response and defend the body against disease. leukocytes
the ____ are responsible for the clotting mechanism platelets
Like veins, ____ vessels are thin-walled and contain one-way valves to maintain flow in one direction only. lymph
____ are entwined with cardiovascular capillaries and absorb excess tissue fluid and blood plasma that leaks from the capillaries. lymphatic capillaries
___ seek put pathogens in the fluid and makes antibodies, which target the pathogens so that other cells can destroy them. lymphocytes
the filtered ___ fluid is essentially ___ blood plasma and is returned to the cardiovascular system via the veins. lymph, cleaned
the heartbeat is also known as the ____ cycle cardiac
the heartbeat begins with the triggering of an impulse within the ____, known as the ____, which is located in the upper wall of the right atrium. sinoatrial (SA) node, pacemaker
the impulse for the heartbeat spreads from __ to ___ atria. right to left
when the impulse reaches the ____ , also in the right atrial wall, and travels along the atrioventricular bundle down the right and left branches in the septum and finally along the ___ in the walls of the ventricle, causing the filled ventricles to contract. atrioventricular node (AV), purkinje fibers
contraction of the atria followed by the ventricles is called ____ systole.
External control of the heart in managed in the cardiac center of the brain and modulated by the hormones ___ and _____. epinephrine and nonrepinephrine.
The pulmonary system receives deoxygenated blood into the right atrium from the body via the via the ___ and ___. superior and inferior vena cava
contraction of the right atrium pumps blood through the right ___ into the ____ AV (tricuspid) valve, right ventricle
contraction of the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood up into the pulmonary artery through the ___ and to the lungs. pulmonary semilunar valve
oxygenated blood from the lungs travels via the ___ into he left atrium. pulmonary veins
The systemic system carries oxygenated blood when the left atrium contracts forcing blood through the left ___ into the left ventricle. AV (bicuspid, mitral)
Contraction of the left ventricle pumps blood through the aortic ___ through the __ towards the rest of the body. aortic semilunar valve, left ventricle
blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm hg)
blood pressure is expressed as __ over ___ pressure. max, min
normal/ average is 120/70 ati (120/80 real)
high blood pressure _____ can cause rupture of the smaller arterioles and capillaries possibly leading to a stroke. hypertension
_____ is a buildup of plaque in blood vessels that reduces the flow of blood through the vessel. Atherosclerosis
When a piece of plaque breaks off, it can travel to smaller vessels, causing a ___ blockage.
a piece of plaque or clotted blood traveling through vessels is known as an ___ embolus.
a _____ occurs when the normal blood flow to the brain is stopped wither by a blockage or by a rupture of a blood vessel, causing death of brain tissue. stroke
a ___ or _____, occurs when the flow of blood to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, causing cardiac muscle tissue to die heart attack, myocardial
Created by: xokitty17xo