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teas A&P

teas ATI 6th edition study guide

the ___ system comprises the closed system of blood pumped around the body by the heart through a network of arteries, veins, and capillaries, as well as the open lymphatic system. circulatory system
the ____ or ____ system describes the movement of blood and lymph around the body. Which permits nutrient distribution, waste removal, communication and protection. cardiovascular and circulatory
the right lung has __ lobes and the left lung has ___ lobes. 3, 2
___ the movement of air in and out of the body via inhalation and exhalation ventilation
__ the windpipe, which connects the larynx to the lungs trachea
___ the amount of air breathed in a normal inhalation or exhalation tidal volume
___ is a lipid mixture secreted by alveoli(cells) of the lungs that reduces the surface tension thus preventing the alveoli from sticking together. surfactant
___ a tough, protective double membrane around the lungs and inside the chest cavity pleura
__ the passage of fluid to an organ or a tissue perfusion
____ a genetic disorder that affects the lungs and other organs, characterized by difficulty breathing, coughing up sputum, and lung infections cystic fibrosis
___ small passages in the lungs that connect bronchi and alveoli bronchioles
____ the main passageways directly attached to the lungs. bronchi
____ a lung disease characterized by inflamed, narrowed airways and difficulty breathing. asthma
____ tiny air sacs in the lungs where exchange of oxygen takes place. alveoli
___ are thin-walled structures that look like clusters of grapes and are the site of gas exchange bronchioles
the respiratory system works interdependently with the ___ system circulatory system
___ divides the body horizontally creating an upper (superior) and lower (inferior) body. transerve plane
____ if the cut is made exactly down the midline of the body, the right and left halves of the body are equal midsagittal section
___ divides the body lengthwise into right and left portions sagittal plane
___ means away from the center peripheral
___ means that the part is located in the center central
____ means that the body is away from the structure of the body ex: bones deep
___ means that a part is located on or near the surface of the body ex: skin superficial
___ means that a part is farther away from the point of attachment than is another part distal
___ means that the structure is nearer the point of attachment, often the truck of the body. proximal
___ means away from the midline of the body lateral
___ another word for posterior. means toward the back surface dorsal
___ another word for anterior. means toward the front surface (belly surface) ventral
____means that a part is located below another part or is closer to the feet inferior
____ the body is standing erect, with the face forward, the arms at the sides, and the toes and palms of the hands forward anatomical position
____ means that a part is above another part or is closer to the head superior
the middle of the body or towards the belly button is called medial
the back of the body or back surface is called posterior
the front of the body is called anterior
sagittal or median indicates ___ and ____ left and right
transverse or cross-sectional plane indications ___ and ___ top and bottom
coronal and frontal plane indicate __ and __ front and back
___ and ______ systems both consist of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. circulatory and respiratory
____ performs several functions, including providing a framework of support, protecting vital organs, articulating muscle to provide resistance for movement, and serving as a location for the synthesis of blood cells. bones
___ coordinates input from various sources to provide instructions for the body’s response to stimuli. brain
____ processes blood to remove wastes and to retain electrolytes and water. kidney
____ cells have large numbers of mitochondria to provide energy for movement. muscle
____ that secrete proteins have a large amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, glands
____ Planes dividing the body to describe locations: sagittal, coronal, and transverse. reference planes
_____ which stores and processes instructions contained in the DNA that tell the cell what its functions are. nucleus
_____ which convert energy present in chemical bonds of food accessible to the cell; mitochondria
____ carry out protein synthesis ribosomes
organs that work together are called ____ organ systems
Tissues are collected into ______, which carry out a single task, such as oxygenating blood (lungs) or filtering out wastes (kidneys). organs
Cells with the same function are collected into larger groups called _____ tissues
____ perform tasks including obtaining energy from food and reproduction. organelles
___ the basic structural unit of an organism from which living things are created. cell
_____ Standard positioning of the body as standing; feet together; arms to the side; with head, eyes, and palms of hands forward. anatomical position
the small amount of stale air (gas) in the lung is called _____ residual capacity
the breathing control centers of the _____ control respiration through monitoring carbon dioxide levels and blood ph. medulla oblongata and pons
the _____ performs the vital functions of transporting nutrients, wastes, chemical messengers, and immune molecules. cardiovascular system
the closed ____ system is a double looped system consisting of thick walled arteries that transport blood away from the heart, thinner-walled veins that transport blood to the heart, and capillaries made of a single layer endothelium that form a network. circulatory system
the closed double-loop system transports ____ blood.
the pulmonary loop carries ___ oxygenated blood
systole indicates ____ of the heart muscle causes blood to push against the muscular walls of the arteries to a max pressure. contraction
diastole is ___ of the heart muscle elasticity in the vessel walls recoils and the pressure decreases to a minimum. relaxation
the systole causes the __ sound lub
the diastole causes the __ sound dub
the lub-dub sound are contractions controlled by the _____ called the _______. pacemaker, sinoatrial node
____ contains nutrients, hormones, antibodies, and other immune proteins blood plasma
____ cells contain hemoglobin and transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. red blood cells
_____ dissolves in plasma and is removed by the lungs. carbon dioxide
___ blood vessels that deliver (carry away) blood from the heart into other parts of the body arteries
____ small blood vessels that walls are only one cell thick, and connect arterioles to venules. they exchange gases and nutrients. capillary
___ refills the heart with blood. which is also known as the rest phase (when the chambers relax and refill) diastole
___ the muscle that pumps blood throughout the body heart
____ the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body hemglobin
____ white blood cells which protect the body against disease leukocyte
____ clear fluid that moves throughout the lymphatic system to fight disease and it is filtered through hundreds of small organs. lymph
___ a subtype of white blood cell found in lymph lymphocyte
___ the pale yellow component of blood that carries red blood cells, white cells, and platelets throughout the body. (liquid) plasma
___ the portion of the cardiac cycle in which the heart expels blood systole
___ blood vessels that carry blood to the heart vein
____ of proteins is initiated in the stomach by the action of the enzyme pepsin, chemical digestion
There are three main secretions of the stomach: pepsinogen (____ cells), mucus (_____ cells), and hydrochloric acid (_____ cells). chief, goblet, parietal
contents (now called chime) pass through the pyloric sphincter into the ______, which is the first part of the small intestine. duodenum
In the duodenum, chyme is neutralized by _____ in pancreatic secretions. bicarbonate
The duodenum receives______ juices from the _______, which helps neutralize acid chyme. alkaline bile, gall bladder
_____ The opening of the rectum from which solid waste is expelled. anus
____ A mass of food that has been chewed and swallowed. bolus
___ The semifluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestine. chyme
______ The break down of food by enzymes for absorption. enzymatic digestion
___ The organ that stores bile. gallbladder
____ Also known as the colon, where vitamins and water are absorbed before feces is stored prior to elimination. large intestine
____ The organ that produces bile, regulates glycogen storage, and performs other bodily functions. liver
___ The oral/ digestive system cavity at the entry to the alimentary canal. mouth
____ The gland of the digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin and secretes pancreatic juices. pancreas
_____ A series of muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract. peristalisis
____ The last section of the large intestine, ending with the anus. rectum
____ The clear liquid found in the mouth, also known as spit. saliva
____ The part of the GI tract between the stomach and large intestine that includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, where digestion and absorption of food occurs small intestine
_____ The organ between the esophagus and small intestine in which the major portion of digestion occurs. stomach
Salivary amylase, salivary lipase are produced in which organ? mouth
Gastric lipase, pepsin(ogen), HCl are produced in which organ stomach
Bile (stored in gall bladder) is produced in which organ liver
Pancreatic juice (bicarbonate, lipase, trypsin(ogen), proteases and amylase) is produced in which organ pancreas
Brush border enzymes (proteases, lactase, disaccharidases) is produced in which organ small intestine
Gastrin, ghrelin is a major hormone of? stomach
Secretin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon are major hormones of pancreas
Cholecystokinin, somatostatin, secretin, motilin are major hormones of small intestine
This system affects every part of the body and is vital in controlling involuntary and voluntary movement. neuromuscular system
____ are long bundles of axons that transmit signals from the central nervous system. nerves
_____ nerves send messages to the central nervous system, sensory/ afferent
______ nerves send messages out to the muscles motor/ efferent
The _______ nervous system controls involuntary actions involving cardiac and smooth muscle, such as heart rhythm, digestion, and breathing. autonomic/ involuntary
____ nerve signals make skeletal muscles do a deliberate action such as walking, throwing, or typing. voluntary
each muscle consistes of long strands of proteins called ____ (thin filaments) and ______ (thick filaments). actin, myosin
Skeletal muscles work by contracting
_______ The part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates unconscious body functions such as breathing and heart rate. autonomic nervous system
___ a nerve fiber axon
___ shortening or elongating a muscle to perform muscle actions contraction
__ Without intentional control involuntary
____ Soft tissue that produces force and motion to move the body muslce
___ A bundle of axons that transmits electrical impulses to peripheral organs. nerve
____ An involuntary movement in reaction to a stimulus reflex
___ Release of tension (exhalation) relaxation
___ The structure that allows neurons to pass signals to other neurons. synapse
___ performed on purpose voluntary
male gametes= sperm
___ The passage that forms the lower part of the uterus. cervix
___ Female sex hormones. estrogen
____ Tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. fallopian tubes
____ Organ in which eggs are produced for reproduction. ovary
____ Organ for elimination of urine and sperm from the male body. penis
____ The gland in males that controls the release of urine and secretes a part of semen that enhances motility and fertility of sperm. prostate
___ The pouch of skin that contains the testicles scrotum
____ The organs that produce sperm; also called testes. testicles
______ The hormone that stimulates male secondary sexual characteristics. testisterone
___ The tube that connects the bladder to the exterior of the female body. urethra
___ the womb uterus
____ The tube that connects the external genitals to the cervix. vagina
____ The duct in which sperm moves from a testicle to the urethra. vas deferens
female gametes= eggs
the ___ system contains organs and glands that do these two things. 1. protect body 2. regulate temp
___ is the largest organ? skin
epidermis is the skin outer layer
dermis is the skin middle layer
subcutaneous or hypodermis is the skin inner layer
skin also produces vitamin D
___ to become narrower constrict
___ to become wider dilate
___ elimination of metabolic waste from the body excretion
__ an organ that secretes a substance gland
___ an organ system comprised of skin and its associated organs integumentary system
___ the thin layer of tissue hat covers the body skin
___ perspiration excreted by sweat glands through the skin sweat
the ___ system is a set of organs that secrete hormones directly into the Circulatory system endocrine
the glands in the endocrine system send ____ through the blood to control the function of that organ chemical messengers
the pancreas releases insulin
the ___ regulates many body functions including blood production, appetite, reproduction, brain function, sleep, salt & water homeostasis, growth, sexual development, response to stress ad injury. endocrine system
__ a gland above the kidney that produces hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and other functions. adrenal
__ a chemical messenger produced by a gland and transported by the blood stream that regulates specific processes in the body. hormone
____ an endocrine gland in the neck that produces parathyroid hormone parathyroid
____ a small gland near the center of the brain that secretes melatonin pineal gland
___ the endocrine gland at the base of the rain that controls growth and development. pituitary
___ the lymphoid organ that produces T-cells thymus
__ the gland in the neck that secrets hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate. thyroid gland
____ is a necessary function for salt and water homeostasis and getting rid of wastes. excretion
The organs in the _____ system, or urogenital, system function in the excretory process. genitourinary
kidneys make __ and filter ___ urine, blood
urine travels through the ____ to the bladder ureters
Kidneys also stabilize ___ and maintain ___ it also produces the active form of ____. water balance, blood pressure, vitamin D
The functional unit of the Kidney is the ____ it is responsible for filtering and exceretion nephron
___ play a vital role in maintaining blood and blood pressure. kidneys
The kidneys also produce_____, a hormone that regulates blood pressure by retaining or removing water and salt. renin
___ The systemcomprised of the heart and blood vessels. cardiovascular system
____ The pair of organs that regulate fluid balance and filter waste from the blood kidneys
____ The two branches of the abdominal aorta that supply the kidneys renal arteries
____ The outer layer of the kidney. renal cortex
____ The innermost part of the kidney. renal medulla
____ The center of the kidney where urine collects before moving to the ureter renal pelvis
___ Veins connecting the kidney to the inferior vena cava that drain the kidney and carry blood purified by the kidney. renal vein
____ The main nitrogenous part of urine. urea
____ The duct that conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder. ureter
____ The structure that stores urine in the body until elimination. urinary bladder
____ Liquid waste matter excreted by the kidneys. urine
The ______ prevents entry of pathogens through the presence of barriers composed of the skin and secretions such as acid, enzymes, and salt. immune system
if the external barrier of the immune system fails then the _____ identifies, targets, and remembers the pathogen. adaptive immune system
The _____ protects the body from disease-causing agents. immune system
there are two types of immune systems they are? innate and adaptive
These are all examples of Skin, Hair, Mucus, Earwax, Secretions (acid, salt, enzymes), Normal flora. Antimicrobials, Inflammation, Interferons. Complement. NK lymphocytes, Phagocytes (including APC) innate immune system
the innate immune system is nonspecific response
These are all examples of Reaction: Cytotoxic T-cells kill pathogen Prevention: B-cells produce antibodies Activated by antigen and helper, T-cells Helper T-cells are activated by APC adaptive immune system
the adaptive immune system responds to specific antigens
____ Able to change as needed. adaptive
____ A blood protein that counteracts a specific antigen. antibody
____ A toxin that stimulates an immune response in the body. antigen
____ A cell that displays foreign antigens with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces. antigen presenting cell
____ A substance that kills or inhibits growth of micro-organisms with minimal damage to the host. antimicrobial
___ Cells that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens. B-cells
____ and ______ cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) Macrophages and dendritic cells
Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through _____ toll like receptors
Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through toll like receptors and trigger an inflammation or _____ antigen presentation
The _____ immune system responds by remembering signature molecules, called antigens, from pathogens to which the body has previously been exposed. adaptive
___ lymphocyte cells that attack host cells that harbor intracellular pathogens; natural killer (nk)
Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved _______ pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS)
Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through _____ and trigger an inflammation or _____ presentation. toll-like receptors, antigen
The ______ system responds by remembering signature molecules, called antigens, from pathogens to which the body has previously been exposed. adaptive immune system
The adaptive immune system’s functional cells are lymphocytes called____-cells and ___-cells. T & B
When a ____ T-cell encounters a cytotoxic T-cell that recognizes the same antigen, it produces ____ that activate the ____ T-cell. helper, cytokines, cytotoxic
The helper T-cell also activates ____-cells that recognize the pathogen’s signature antigen. B
this induces the B-cell to multiply rapidly into secretory cells called ____ cells, which produce large amounts of an _____ (Ig, or immunoglobulins) that can bind the antigen. plasma cells, antibody
If antigen levels subside, plasma cells stop making antibodies and produce ____ cells that remember the antigen. memory
Overactive immune systems can target innocuous foreign particles like pollen, causing the body to go into overdrive by producing huge amounts of IgE that trigger histamine release from mast cells, causing _____ with sneezing and mucus secretion. allergies
Alternately, the immune system can mistakenly target a host molecule as a foreign antigen, leading to ______ autoimmune disease
____ A divider between parts of the body. barrier
____ The group of proteins in blood serum and plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particulate antigens. complement
___ Antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material and present it to T-cells. dendritic cells
____. An antibody. immunoglobulin
___ inborn. innate
______ A large white blood cell that ingests foreign material. macrophage
_____ A lymphocyte that responds to an antigen upon reintroduction memory cell
______ Ingestion of particles by a cell or phagocyte. phagocytosis
____ A white blood cell that produces a single type of antibody. plasma cell
___ White blood cells that mature in the thymus and participate in immune response. T-cell
The _____ has three main functions: movement, protection, and metabolism. skeletal system
Bone is a dynamic_____ that is made and broken down according to need. tissue
___- Hard, calcified material that makes up the skeleton. bone
____ a group of diseases that affect collagen and result in fragile bones. brittle bone disease
____ Microscoping canals in ossified bone. canaliculi
____ Tough, elastic connective tissue found in parts of the body such as the ear. cartilage
____ The primary structural protein of skin/ connective tissue. collagen
____ Channels in bone that contain blood vessels and nerves. haversian canal
____ Layers of bone, tissue, or cell walls. iamellae
_____ Flattened bone cells that come from osteoblasts. lining cells
___ Degenerative joint disease osteoartritis
___ Cells that make bone. osteoblasts
____ Cells that remove bone. osteoclasts
___ bone cells osteocytes
____ have long compact hollow shafts containing marrow. long bones
____ ends are usually made of spongy bone with air pockets. long bones
____ are wider than they are long. short bones
____ are not hollow but contain marrow. flat bones
____ have nonsymmetrical shapes and include the bones of the skull, knee, and elbow. irregular bones
humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, and fibula are examples of ___ long bones
The bones of the toes (metatarsals) and collarbone (clavicle) are ____ short bones
scapula, ribs, and sternum are examples of ___ flat bones
Typically, bones are articulated to other bones through ____and to muscle through ____. ligaments, tendons
The articulating surfaces of bones are covered in _____ which prevents them from grinding against each other. hyaline cartilage
Bone is covered by a fibrous sheath called the periosteum
__ which contains nerves and blood vessels. periosteum
Bone is synthesized in tubular structures called osteon
____ Cylindrical structures that comprise compact bone. osteons
___ A disease that causes brittle, fragile bones. osteoporosis
___A progressive disease that causes joint inflammation and pain. rheumatoid arthritis
____ Channels in bone that transmit blood vessels and communicate with Haversian canals. volkmann canal
___ disease (osteogenesis imperfecta) is due to a genetic defect in the _____ and causes bones to break easily. brittle bone, collagen matrix
___ immunity is a defense that employs B-cells to create antibodies that tag pathogens later. antibody-mediated
If the external barrier is breached, the ___ line of defense is the internal aspect of the ___ immune system, a collection of nonspecific cellular responses ( inflammation, production of interferion, ingestion of pathogens by phagocytes). second, innate
Contraction of the atria is caused by the impulse of the _____ node sinoatrial
The ___ fiber impulse causes the contraction of the ventricles Purkinje
A _____ (a heart attack) occurs when the cardiac muscle dies as a result of blood flow blockage to that tissue. myocardial infarction
___ of the small intestine provide a greater nutrient-absorbing surface area. When they are damaged the nutrient-absorbing surface area is _____ Villi, diminished
The _____ is a section of the brain that serves as an integration center between the endocrine and nervous systems. hypothalamus
____ is produced by the skin when a cholesterol-based precursor is modified by the presence of ultraviolet radiation. Vitamin D
____ liberate calcium from bone-bound reserves. this mineral resorption removes calcium from bone so it can enter the bloodstream osteoclasts
_____ secretions allow mineralization in bones that is inhibited elsewhere in the body. osteoblasts
___ are star-shaped cells that maintain bone and are able to sense physical stress. osteocytes
___ is a type of bone having fewer osteons and, therefore, lighter than compact (dense) bone, it is a site of red bone marrow production spongy bone
___ is a space inside of long bones that contains yellow bone marrow. Medullary cavity
___ are the structures in cells where proteins are made ribosomes
___ causes increased residual volume because its destruction of elastic lung tissue allows greater than normal lung expansion with reduced/ poor recoil and increased residual volume. Emphysema
the ___ lining is the normal site for implantation of a zygote. Uterine
___ is the movement of substances from the pertitubular capillaries to the renal tubule. therefore, this is the opposite of re-absorption. secretion
___ returns substances from the renal tubule to peritubular capillaries. reabsorption
the ___ controls balance and equilibrium cerebellum
the ___ consists of four lobes that control various functions, which do not include balance and equilibrium. cerebrum
the ____ lobe is the part of the cerebrum that controls processes such as language and sensory information parietal
the ___ lobe is the part of the cerebrum that controls vision. occipital
_____ is a signal traveling through a chain of neurons, rather than along a single neuron. reverberation
___ describes one way to create an action potential, rather than describing an action potential jumping from node to node in an axon. Temporal summation
___ conduction is the process by which an action potential jumps from node to node on a myelinated axon saltatory
___ refers to passing an electrical impulse from on nerve to another, rather than the conduction of an action potential along one nerve ricocheting
They're four basic types of tissues and they are Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues
___ tissue covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, and serves as a protective barrier. epithelial
___ tissue connects other tissues to each other and serves to bind ans support body parts. connective
___ tissue moves the body and its contents by contraction muscle
__ tissue receives stimuli from the internal or external environment and communicates through electrical impulses with the rest of the body. nervous
the kidney main function is to ___ and filter ___ from blood. recycle nutrients, wastes
respiratory system performs the function of exchanging the gas of CO2 for O2
the term skull means cranium
the process of aerating the lungs is known as ____ ventilation.
the ____ includes the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, pharynx, glottis and the larynx. upper respiratory tract
the ____ begins at the trachea and extends into the lungs via repeated branching of bronchus into bronchioles and ending at the alveoli, where gas exchange occurs. lower respiratory tract
the __ is a shared passageway where both air and food contains an opening for the digestive system, as well as the continuation of the respiratory system at the glottis. pharynx
a flap called the ____ covers the opening of the glottis during swallowing to prevent food and liquids from entering the lungs epiglottis
the ___ is the passageway for air through the vocal chords and leads to the larynx, commonly called the voice box. glottis
___ is produced in the larynx when air from the lungs is forced against the vocal chords sound
The ___ begins the lower respiratory tract. trachea
___ also known as the windpipe, consists of a rigid tube of cartilaginous rings and lies anterior to the esophagus. trachea
the _____ splits into two main branches that enter the lungs as right and left primary bronchi. trachea
the walls of the alveoli are single layer of ___ tissue, which allows for the simple diffusion of gases in and out. epithelial
the alveoli are surrounded by ___ whose walls also consists of ___ cells. capillaries, epithelial
inhaled oxygen diffuses into the ___ in the surrounding capillaries and from there into the nearby tissues. red blood cells
___ diffuses out of the tissues into the red blood cells and then the alveoli to be exhaled from the lungs. carbon dioxide
increasing levels of C02 causes an increase in ___ ions, which makes the blood more acidic. H+
The ___ is the amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration or deep breath. total lung capacity (TLC)
the ___ is the amount of gas that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration, as in exhaling after a deep breath. vial capacity (VC)
the vital capacity plus the residual volume is equal to the total lung capacity
water in the lungs causes and increase in surface tension making the water "sticky" in the alveoli which causes both sides of the alveoli to stick together causing collapse of the lungs, known as ____. atelectasis
lung compliance depends on two characteristics the __ of lung tissue and the ___ surface tension elasticity, alveolar.
Asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer cause increased resistance to lung expansion, resulting in a low ____. compliance
___ is a recessive gene mutation causes the normally slippery mucous secreted in the lungs to become thick and sticky. this atypical mucus can clog the airways, leading to severe breathing problems and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. cystic fibrosis
___ can cause shortness of breath due to the decreased concentration of oxygen in the air. high altitudes
the ____ is made up of four main components: the heart, blood vessels, blood, and lymphatic system. cardiovascular system
The ___ is a large muscular organ comprised of cardiac tissue called __ and is surrounded by a sac called the ____. heart, myocardium, pericardium
the heart contains four chambers divided by a _____. median septum
The two ___ are the receiving chambers (heart) and the two ____ are the pumping chambers. superior atria, inferior ventricles
the atria and ventricle are separated by the _____ valves. atrioventricular
The right side of the heart pumps _____ from the heart towards the lungs and is called the ____ system. deoxygenated blood, pulmonary
the left side of the heart receives ___ from the lungs and pumps it toward the rest of the body parts and is known as the ____ system. oxygenated blood, systemic
The blood pumped by the heart travels through the extensive ___ of the ___. conduits, vessles
___ have a thick layer of smooth muscle in their walls to withstand the pressure of the forceful heartbeat. arteries
___ carry blood from body parts towards the heart veins
__are connected to the capillary beds via smaller branches called venules. veins
___ have one-way valves to prevent blood from flowing back into the system. veins
the ____ is a straw-colored liquid that contains water, immune proteins, and other nutrients. plasma
____ red blood cells erythrocytes
____ white blood cells leukocytes
___ are a major component of blood and contain the protein ____, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and helps return carbon dioxide from he tissues back to the lungs. red blood cells, hemoglobin
The ____ function in the immune response and defend the body against disease. leukocytes
the ____ are responsible for the clotting mechanism platelets
Like veins, ____ vessels are thin-walled and contain one-way valves to maintain flow in one direction only. lymph
____ are entwined with cardiovascular capillaries and absorb excess tissue fluid and blood plasma that leaks from the capillaries. lymphatic capillaries
___ seek put pathogens in the fluid and makes antibodies, which target the pathogens so that other cells can destroy them. lymphocytes
the filtered ___ fluid is essentially ___ blood plasma and is returned to the cardiovascular system via the veins. lymph, cleaned
the heartbeat is also known as the ____ cycle cardiac
the heartbeat begins with the triggering of an impulse within the ____, known as the ____, which is located in the upper wall of the right atrium. sinoatrial (SA) node, pacemaker
the impulse for the heartbeat spreads from __ to ___ atria. right to left
when the impulse reaches the ____ , also in the right atrial wall, and travels along the atrioventricular bundle down the right and left branches in the septum and finally along the ___ in the walls of the ventricle, causing the filled ventricles to contract. atrioventricular node (AV), purkinje fibers
contraction of the atria followed by the ventricles is called ____ systole.
External control of the heart in managed in the cardiac center of the brain and modulated by the hormones ___ and _____. epinephrine and nonrepinephrine.
The pulmonary system receives deoxygenated blood into the right atrium from the body via the via the ___ and ___. superior and inferior vena cava
contraction of the right atrium pumps blood through the right ___ into the ____ AV (tricuspid) valve, right ventricle
contraction of the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood up into the pulmonary artery through the ___ and to the lungs. pulmonary semilunar valve
oxygenated blood from the lungs travels via the ___ into he left atrium. pulmonary veins
The systemic system carries oxygenated blood when the left atrium contracts forcing blood through the left ___ into the left ventricle. AV (bicuspid, mitral)
Contraction of the left ventricle pumps blood through the aortic ___ through the __ towards the rest of the body. aortic semilunar valve, left ventricle
blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm hg)
blood pressure is expressed as __ over ___ pressure. max, min
normal/ average is 120/70 ati (120/80 real)
high blood pressure _____ can cause rupture of the smaller arterioles and capillaries possibly leading to a stroke. hypertension
_____ is a buildup of plaque in blood vessels that reduces the flow of blood through the vessel. Atherosclerosis
When a piece of plaque breaks off, it can travel to smaller vessels, causing a ___ blockage.
a piece of plaque or clotted blood traveling through vessels is known as an ___ embolus.
a _____ occurs when the normal blood flow to the brain is stopped wither by a blockage or by a rupture of a blood vessel, causing death of brain tissue. stroke
a ___ or _____, occurs when the flow of blood to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, causing cardiac muscle tissue to die heart attack, myocardial
the gastrointestinal system is also referred to as the digestive system or alimentary canal
in the GI tract glands perform both mechanical and chemical digestion
Blood vessels in the GI tract absorb the digested nutrients
the smooth muscle in the GI tract in under _____ control parasympathetic nervous
The digestive system function to break down ___ into small nutrient molecules that are then absorbed into the ___ system and distributed to the __ of the tissues throughout the body. macromolecules, circulatory, cells
The digestive system also ___ and ___ undigested waste. forms, elimates
The five main steps in digestion is 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. ingestion (intake of food) 2. digestion (mechanical and chemical breakdown) 3. movement (move food through Gi tract) 4. absorption (nutrients into tissue cells) 5. elimination (undigested waste)
Movement of the food through the GI tract through ___. peritalsis
Food enters the system through the ___, where three pairs of salivary glands secrete ___ that contains ____. mouth. saliva, amylase
____ the oral cavity at the entry to the alimentary canal. mouth
___ the clear liquid found in the mouth, also known as spit saliva
amylase is an __ that begins ___ digestion in the mouth. enzyme, carbohydrate
The teeth being the mechanical breakdown of food by ____and mixing it with the __ and ____. chewing, enzymes, saliva
chewing technical term is mastication
The tongue forms a ___ and moves it towards the ___. bolus, pharynx
___ a mass of food that has been chewed and swallowed bolus
The ___ is a cavity between the __ and the ___. pharynx, mouth, esophagus
the pharynx provides a passageway for ___ and ___. food and air
the __ is swallowed and the ___ closes off the opening to the __ so food only enter the ____. bolus, epiglottis, trachea, esophagus.
the technical term for bolus is degutination
the ____ is a long, muscular tube that carries food to the stomach by a wavelike ____ called ___. esophagus, involuntary smooth muscle contraction, peristalsis
When food reaches the distal portion of the esophagus, the ___ between the __ and the ____ relaxes to let food pass into the stomach. sphincter, esophagus, stomach.
after food passes into the stomach the __ contracts, preventing ___ from backing up into the esophagus. sphincter, stomach acid
stomach acid backing up into the esophagus is a condition known as gastric reflux
The stomach has folds called ___ that increase the holding capacity of the stomach to about ___. rugae, 1 liter
___ the organ between the esophagus and small intestine in which the major portion of digestion occurs. stomach
The mechanical mixing action of the stomach mixes the __ of food with __ to form partially digested liquid called _____. boluses, gastric juices, chyme
__ the semifluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestine chyme
Gastric juice is a mixture of __, __, and ___ secreted by the various __ of the stomach. mucus, hydrochloric acid, digestive enzymes, cells
The chief cells secrete ___ and ____. pepsinogen, enzyme gastric lipase
____ an inactive form of pepsin used in protein pepsinogen
___ which digests fats enzyme gastric lipase
The ___ cells secret hydrochloric acid. parietal
____ converts the inactive pepsinogen to its active pepsin form hydrochloric acid
___ cells in the gastric lining secrete mucous for protection against the highly acidic hydrogen chloride. goblet
___ secreted by the stomach also contribute to the process of digestion hormones
the hormone ____ acts to stimulate the secretion of the gastric juices. gastrin
The hormone ___ stimulates the appetite and promotes storage of fats. ghrelin
The stomach performs several functions it stores food ___, continues the processes of __ and ___ (enzymatic) digestion, and controls the movement of ___ into the duodenum of the small intestine. boluses, mechanical and chemical, chyme
The ____ is approximately 18 feet in length and has a large surface area created by repeated ___ within its walls. Which enhances __ and ____. small intestine, folds, digestion and absorption
The small intestine is divided into three major regions and they are ___, ___ and ___. duodenum, Jejunum, and ileum
The ____ is the short section attached to the pyloric sphincter of the stomach. duodenum
As chyme leaves the stomach, it is acted upon by enzymes from the __, ___ and ____. liver, gall bladder, and pancreas.
___ the organ that produces bile, regulates glycogen storage, and performs other bodily functions. liver
___ the organ that stores bile gall bladder
___ the gland of the digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin and secretes pancreatic juices. pancreas
The ___ produces alkaline bile secreted via the gall bladder to aid in the emulsification and breakdown of ___. liver, fats.
The ___ secretes pancreatic juice, which is a mixture of __, ___, ____, and many digestive ____. pancreas, water, salts, bicarbonate, and enzymes.
The ____ neutralizes acidic chyme, and the ____ digestion of fats by __, starches by __ and proteins by __ are completed in he ____. bicarbonate, enzymatic, lipase, amylase, trypsin, duodenum
The pancreas is also an __ gland. endorine
The pancreas secretes the hormones __ and __ for the control of blood glucose levels. insulin and glucagon
The pancreas also absorbs the nutrients including __ occurs in the multiple folds (___ and ___) of the _ and __ as the chyme is pushed through via ____. vitamin b12, villi and microvilli, jejunum, and ileum, peristalsis.
From the ___, blood carrying nutrients passes to the liver through the ___ portal duct, allowing the liver to metabolize consumed __ and store glucose as ___. small intestine, hepatic, toxins, glycogen
The large intestine includes the __, __, __, and ___. cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
The chyme leaves the ___ and enters into the __. ileum, cecum
The cecum has a projection known as the ___, which can play a role in the ____. appendix, immune system.
The colon is divided into four sections ___, ____, ____, and ____. ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid.
As undigested food (feces) travels through the colon, __ is absorbed. water
___ in the colon metabolize the fecal matter via ___ and produces vitamins, such as vitamin __ to be absorbed. bacteria, fermentation, k
Fecal waste accumulates and is stored in the __ until it is ejected through the anus by defecation. rectum,
__ the last section of the large intestine ending with the anus rectum
___ comprised of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal, it is where vitamins and water are absorbed before feces is stored prior to elimination. large intestine
___ the opening of the rectum from which solid waste is expelled. anus
The neuromuscular system incorporates the __ and the ___ system. nervous and muscular
The coordination of the nervous and muscular systems controls and affects every part o the body in ____ functions and in the constant drive to maintain _____. daily life, homeostasis.
The function of the nervous system is to gather information from the __ and ___ environment and communicate any necessary changes to the muscular system. internal and external
The nervous and muscular system function together in part due to the unique features of their ____. cells
Communication is accomplished between the nervous and muscular system via ___ cells called ___ that pass information using an __ nerve impulse. distinctive, neurons, electrical
Information passes through hundreds of __ much like the game telephone until it reaches the final destination of the ___ for an action to be performed. muscle
___ a bundle of nerve fibers that transmits electrical impulses towards and away from the brain and spinal cord. nerve
___ Fibrous tissue that producaes force and motion to move the body or produce movement in parts of the body muscle
____ cells carry out their function via their distinguishing ability to ___. muscle, contract
The nervous system is divided into the __ and the ___. central nervous system (CNS), and the Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the Central nervous system (CNS) consist of the __ and ___. brain and spinal cord
The brain integrates sensory information received from the __ and __ environment and assembles a motor response. internal and external
The spinal cord is similar to a multilane highway system that connects the ____ to the brain. Peripheral nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consist of the extensive network of the __ and __ and __ or ___ information away from the brain and spinal cord. spinal nerves, brain, motor, or efferent
The spinal nerves are like the many side roads and alleys that go to every part of our body outside of the ___. In this way the brain has access to everything that s going on in the body and can make decisions necessary to keep __ balance via __ reactions CNS, homeostatic, muscle
Once a stimulus is processed in the CNS, the peripheral motor nerves send efferent impulses to both the __ and __ division of the nervous system to carry out a response. somatic and autonomic
The __ division is voluntary and controls the skeletal muscles of the body. somatic
Humans consciously control this system and can decide which muscles to contract or relax at any given time, allowing us to regulate when and how we move. This is called ___ Somatic
The ___ or ___ division is involuntary and controls the visceral or cardiac muscles of organ systems like the digestive and cardiovascular systems without our conscious planning. autonomic or visceral
Once we have chewed and swallowed using the ____ _____pathway of our neuromuscular system, we then turn control over to the ___ __ pathway for digestion. somatic voluntary, autonomic involuntary
We do not need to plan or control ___ of food once its eaten, nor do we have to think about breathing or keeping our heart beating at the correct rate while __ is occurring. digestion, digestion
The information gathered, processed, and passed to muscles travels as electrical impulses of the nervous system along specialized cells called ____ neurons.
The anatomy of a typical neuron includes a ___, the main part of the cell containing the nucleus and most organelles, and __that extend from the body. cell body, nerve fibers
The nerve fibers are __ and ___. dendrites and axons
__ are receptor extensions that receive nerve impulses. dendrites
An __ is a long singular tall-like extension which sends impulses from the neuron body to the branching axon terminal. Axon
All nerve impulses travel in this __ direction. one-way
all nerve impulses travel in this one-way direction: from __ to the ___ and then down the ____. dendrites, cell body, axon
A stimulus is picked up at the ___ and sent through the cell body along the __ to the terminal branches. dendrites, axon
Once the nerve impulse reaches the __ terminal, it stimulates the release of chemical neurotransmitters into a gap structure known as the ____ axon, synapse
The __ is the structure that allows neurons to pass signals on to other neurons, muscles, or glands. synapse
The neurotransmitters secreted into the ___ are picked up by the next cell causing the continuation or inhibition of the impulses. synapse
__ neurons carry afferent impulses towards the CNA, and motor neurons carry efferent impulses from the CNS out to muscles. Sensory
__ are bundles of nerve fibers- axons and dendrites- and therefore contain both afferent and efferent impulses. spinal nerves
When an ___ axon terminal synapses with a muscle cell, stimulation of a muscle contraction can occur. efferent
__ are fibrous tissue with the unique ability to shorten or contract to move body parts and then to relax back to their original length. Muslces
____ are bundled in a similar fashion as nerves. Muscles
While nerves are bundles of fibers, a muscle, like your bicep, consists of bundles of ___ or ____. muscle fibers or cells
The muscle fibers in turn contain countless smaller ___. myofibrils.
The myofibrils have two types o contractile protein filaments: the thinner __ and thicker ____. actin, myosin
These contractile protein filaments for muscles are arranged in overlapping ___. bands
A ___ is the repeating contractile unit of a ___ muscle and is delineated by these bands of myosin and actin filaments. sacromere, skeletal muscle
___ means contracting unit of a muscle sacromere
When the axon terminal secretes the chemical neurotransmitter at the ___ of a neuromuscular junction, it stimulates the muscle to contract. synapse
____ occurs when the thin actin filaments slide past the thicker myosin filaments, causing the sarcomere unit to shorten or contract. contraction
The actin and myosin filaments in a muscle do not short themselves but shorten the length of the ___ by sliding past one another. sarcomere
___, the chemical energy of all cells, is used to cause the contraction and is also necessary for the ____ of the muscle. ATP, relaxation
Many muscle fibers must contract in a unified pattern to cause a ____ for movement of a body part. fluid muscle contraction
Each ___ supplies signals to several up to hundreds of muscle fibers. neuron
In the ____ system, the fine motor control used in hand and eye muscles requires connections of __ to __ muscle fibers per neuron. somatic, 3-6
For the more powerful contractions of muscles in the leg or arm, there can be connections of __ muscle fibers per neuron. 1,000
The ___ division of the neuromuscular system controls the contraction and relaxation of __ reflexes. autonomic, visceral
the heartbeat, the mechanical propulsion and breakdown of food are examples of neuromuscular control by the ___ autonomic nervous system
Disorders of the neuromuscular system can involve __ or __ the nervous and muscle systems. either or both
__ response to nerve impulse can be affected by an injury to the muscle and/or its supporting ligaments and tendons. muscle
a ___ comprises the stretching or tearing of the muscle and a sprain is an injury to the accompanying support ligaments and tendons of a muscle. muscle strain
the neuromusclular junction is compromised in a condition called ____ commonly known as ____ amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig disease
In Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) also known as Lou Gehrug diseasse the ___ neurons degenerate and die, leading to loss of ___ muscle movement. motor, voluntary
__ is a group of genetic disorders in which abnormal genes interfere with the production of ____ needed to form healthy muscles. Muscular dystrophy, proteins
Whiles the nerves are not affected in muscular dystrophy, muscles progressively __ and weaken degenerate
Unlike ALS with muscular dystrophy both ___ and __ muscles are compromised. voluntary and involuntary
___ cells for ex are muscle, bone and skin. when new cells are needed they go through __ cellular division. body, mitotic.
sex cells are also called ___ gametes
male gametes are __ and female gametes are ___. sperm, ovum (eggs)
the uniting of the sperm and egg nuclei during fertilization recombines a full set of genetic material for the formation of a __ zygote.
gonads= testes
testes are held in the scrotal sac called __ scrotum
the sac holds the sperm outside of the body which helps regulate the __ necessary fr the sperm to mature cooler temp.
the sperm mature in the ____, which is a tightly coiled tube on the back of each testis. epididmyis
during sexual arousal mature sperm are transported from the ___ through the duct system of the ___. From there they pass through the __ gland where the nutrients and lubricating fluids are added. epididmyis, vas deferens, prostate gland
the ___ is the primary external sexual organ of the male penis
At orgasm, semen is expelled from the urethra of the penis by the _____ contractions of ejaculation. rhythmic muscular
the females gonads are the ovaries
baby is considered full term at 40 weeks
The ___ is the master control gland in the endocrine system. pituitary gland
at the onset of puberty the pituitary gland secretes ___ and ___. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone
In a male the Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes the production of ___ and Luteinizing hormone (LH) controls the production of the ____ sperm, testosterone
FSH promotes the appearance of __ in females. hair, mammary glands, and menstrual cycle.
periods are approx every ___ 28 days
an ovary contains many immature eggs, each in a fluid-filled structure called a ___ graafian follicle.
___ saclike structure that contains and allows for maturation of the female ovum (egg) within the ovary follicle
The swell of the LH (Luteinizing hormone) causes ____, a rupturing of the egg from the follicle. ovulation
The corpus luteum secreted the hormone ___ progesterone
The main organ of the integumentary system is the ___ skin
The skin (integumentary) is made of three layers and is imbedded with accessory structures such as ___, __, and ___. glands, hair, nails
The three layers of the skin are ___, ___, and ____. epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis.
the outer layer of skin is the ___. epidermis
The epidermis consists of ___ stratified __ epithelial tissue keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue
__ migrate from the deeper region to the exterior surface of the __ as they age. during this time, they become more __, slough off, and are replaced by younger __. Cells, epidermis, flattened, cells
around ___, the tubes from which hair grows, the epidermis dips down into the middle layer called the ___. hair follicles, dermis
The histology of the dermis is ___ tissue rather than epithelial tissue. connective
Typical of these two kinds of tissues, the epidermis is ___, while the dermis contains __ and ___. avascular, capillaries, and small blood vessels.
avascular is lack of blood vessels
Another name for the dermis is the ____ layer. cutaneous
__ and ___ layer is used to refer to the deepest layer of the skin, hypodermis or subcutaneous
The two major types of hypodermis tissue are both of the ____: which are __ and ___ tissue. loose connective category, areolar and adipose
Within the loose connective category the hypodermis is highly ___ and below the hypodermis is the ___ layer. vascular, muscle
hair is generated by __ cells at the base of the hair follicles. Hair acquires oil from the ___ glands that surround hair follicles. epithelial, sebaceous
This oil is technically known as ___, and it moisturizes both hair and skin, keeping the __ flexible and water-resistant. sebum, keratin
Sebum is also produced by ___ glands, accessory structures only found in the dermis of the external ear canal. ceruminous
Sebum from ___ glands combines with dead epithelial cells to form cerumen, more commonly known as ear wax. ceruminous
Another gland in physical association with the hair follicle is the ___. apocrine sweat gland.
The secretion from the aprocrine sweat gland also referred to as ____ glands has an odor that may act as a sex pheromone in humans. sweat
___ sweat has a higher concentration of fatty acids than other sweat. As a result, when bacteria use ___ sweat components as nutrients they quickly change its odor to one of rancid ___ a body odor that is found disagreeable to most people. Apocrine, apocrine, fatty acids
Sweat produced by ____ sweat glands ( also known as ___ sweat glands) has a different composition. eccrine, merocrine
Unlike most other exocrine glands of the skin,_____ sweat glands deliver their secretions directly to the external surface of the ___. eccrine, epidermis
The main role of eccrine sweat is _____. Therefore, in contrast to apocrine sweat glands, eccrine sweat glands are found throughout the dermis of the human body. thermoregulation
the primary six functions of the integumentary system. 1. removes metabolic wastes, 2. synthesizes vit D, 3. communication 4. sensory tool 5. protection to body 6. main organ of temp regulation
The integumentary system uses two primary means for thermoregulation: __ and ___ perspiration and diameter changes of blood vessels
There are temperature sensors (thermoreceptors) in both the ___ and ___. hypothalamus and skin
The thermoreceptors in the skin provide information to the ___, which it uses to act as the body's thermostat. When the ___ perceives that body temp is too high, it stimulates ___. hypothalamus, hypothalamus, cutaneous vasodilation
The increase in blood vessel ___ in the skin allows more blood to flow near the surface of the body, so that body heat carried by the blood is transferred to the external environment. diameter
If ______ is not sufficient to lower body temp into a ____ range, the ____ stimulates ___ production. cutaneous vasodilation, homeostatic, hypothalamus, sweat
As the perspiration on the surface of the skin dries, it lowers body temperature through ___ cooling. evaporative
Shivering is a response caused by the ___ when the body is below its ___ temperature. These fast alternating contractions of muscle occur below the skin. hypothalamus, hmeostatic
Within the skin, ___ muscles tense with chilling temperature and cause hair to bristle. arrector pili muscles
The contraction of these cutaneous smooth muscles generate ___, which is trapped within the insulated airspace created when hair "stands on end". heat
The practical effect of ____ on heat generation and retention is minimal for humans compared to other mammals. A more effective means of retaining heat is triggered when the hypothalamus causes ___ in the skin. arrector pili, vasoconstriction
_____ reduces the amount of blood traveling close to the surface of the body, thus decreasing heat loss through the skin, cutaneous vasoconstriction
the integumentary system is the external aspect of the ____. innate immune system
Cerumen, hair, and mucus trap particles that can contain ____. When epidermal cells shed, potentially ____ microbes fall away from the body too. pathogens, pathogenic
The epidermal water barrier maintained by ____ and ___, a tough protein made by epithelial ____, helps to prevent the body from dehydration. sebum and keratin, keratinocytes,
__ and ___ in sebum and sweat encourage a low PH that inhibits growth of bacteria. Lactic and fatty acids
sweat also contains ___ substances. antibacterial
Another way that the integumentary protects the body is by serving as a large surface area for __ of waste material such as mineral __ and __. Lastly the skin shields deeper tissue from a portion of the harmful ___ from the sun. excretion, salts, urea, ultraviolet radiation
In the skin, sensory receptors of the nervous system are activated in response to stimuli that is perceived as sensations, including __, __, and ___. pressure, heat, and pain
The ___ system is a set of organs that secretes hormones directly into the ___ system. endocrine, circulatory
The action of the endocrine system relies upon blood circulation to transport ___, chemical messengers secreted by ductless glands, to the cells and organs on which they have an effect (target sites). hormones
because blood flow is employed to transmit hormones from glad to target organ, it takes longer for a ___- releasing stimulus to cause a regulatory response than it takes the neurons of the nervous system to initiate a response. hormone
However ___ remain in the blood stream after a neuron's signal has ended. hormones
___ a polar, water-soluble hormone released by the adrenals in response to stress. Also known as adrenaline. epinephrine
the ___ is unique among organs in the body because it secretes both enzymes and hormones. pancreas
one endocrine role of the pancreas is to release __, a hormone that triggers the uptake of glucose into cells thus lowering blood glucose levels. insulin
The same cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin also detect levels of ___. glucose
___ cells are able to adjust the amount of insulin they secrete in proportion to the amount of blood glucose they detect. ____ cells of the pancreas are also able to detect blood glucose levels. Beta. Alpha
When glucose levels are too low, ___ cells secrete a different hormone, ____. This hormone stimulates its target cells in the liver to convert hepatic glycogen stores into __ and release that glucose into the blood. alpha, glucagon, glucose
Both kind of pancreatic cells (alpha and beta) producing each of these hormones regulate blood sugar amounts through ___. In other words, hormone secretion is stopped when a ____ level of blood glucose is detected. negative feedback, homeostatic
____ is a disease that results from a pancreatic hormone regulation malfunction. Diabetes
____ pathologically high blood sugar levels. diabetes
The ____ is a location in the brain that is an integration center between the endocrine and nervous system. hypothalamus
The ____ produces releasing hormones that stimulate and inhibiting ___ that restrict the production of several hormones produced by the anterior __. hypothalamus, hormones, pituitary
the anterior pituitary secretes growth ___. whose production by the anterior pituitary is stimulated or suppressed by specific releasing hormones or inhibiting hormones secreted by the ____. hormone, hypothalamus
Thyroid hormone's release from the thyroid gland is initiated by an anterior pituitary secretion called ___ (TSH). thyroid stimulating hormone
The release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is triggered by the presence of ____ secreted by the hypothalamus. thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH)
The presence of TH (thyroid hormone) in the bloodstream causes negative feedback inhibition on the release of both ___ (from the pituitary) and ____ from the hypothalamus. TSH and TRH
A malfunction of the TH regulatory feedback loops leading to the overproduction of thyroid hormone is called ___. hyperthyroidism
____ causes an increase in the secretion of a hormone, rather than cessation at a homeostatic set point or range. Positive feedback
melatonin is a hormone that plays a role in maintaining circadian rhythms is produced by the ___ in the center of the brain. pineal gland
Follicle stimulating hormone FSH which is secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates development of __ in ovaries and __ in testes. eggs, sperm
steroid hormones are made from cholesterol
The thymus is a gland located behind the manubrium
The thymus is also called the lymphoid organ and it is the place where the immune systems ___ are produced T-cells
the _____ is a small grouping of usually four bean-shaped endocrine glands on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland. parathyroid
The ___ secretes __ when plasma calcium levels are low (__). parathyroid, PTH, hypocalcemia
the ___ plays a role in the regulation of plasma calcium levels. parathyroid
Parathyroid hormone indirectly activates ___ causing the reorportion of calcium from bones. This hormone also works in the excretory system to increase plasma calcium levels by inhibiting the __ ability to transfer calcium ions to urine. osteoclasts, kidney's
epinephrine also known as adrenal regulates __ and __ heart rate and blood pressure
the primary organ of the urinary system is the kidneys
The kidney includes structures where ___ is filtered, locations where filtered material can be reabsorbed by blood, and places where what is not reabsorbed collects as ____ blood, urine
In addition to blood vessels that bring blood to and from the kidney, a system of __ allows for collection and re absorption of filtrate, the collection of urine from the kidneys, urine storage, and its excretion. tubes
The functional units of the kidney are microscopic ___. The kidney is divided into 2 major regions: the __ and the ___. nephrons, renal cortex, renal medulla.
___ the outer layer of the kidney renal cortex
__ the innermost part of the kidney renal medulla
within the renal cortex is the __ of the nephron. glomerulus
the ___ is a network of capillaries where blood pressure pushes water, salt, glucose, amino acids, and urea from the blood. glomerulus
all of the material leaving the blood through the walls of the glomerular capillaries is called the ____. filtrate.
___ is collected by the bowman's capsule, which surrounds the glomerulus. From the _____ capsule, filtrate moves into a highly convoluted tubule before dipping down into the level of the kidney's medulla. filtrate, bowman's,
___ a cup like structure that surrounds and collects filtrate from the glomerulus bowman's capsule
____ the first location where glucose and other useful solutes are reabsorbed back into the blood through the walls of surrounding capillaries. it connects the bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle. proximal tubule
After the ___ dips down into the renal medulla, the remaining filtrate flows through the switch back bend of the loop of Henle, then continues back into the ___ through the distal tubule. proximal tubule, cortex
the loop of henle and distal tubule are also sites of ___, movement of useful material from filtrate back into the bloodstream. tubular reabsorption
During tubular re absorption, ___ pressure causes more than 80% of the water in filtrate to return to the blood plasma. osmotic
Additional water is reabsorbed from filtrate that has continued from the distal tubule into the _____. collecting duct.
In the renal __, distal ___ from numerous nephrons empty into each collecting duct. cortex, tubules
As the collecting ducts transport the contained liquid on its second journey through the ___, the remaining filtrate has its final opportunity for water reabsorption. Here the filtrate becomes more concentrated as ___ medulla, urine
Collecting ducts join and empty their urine into the __ of the kidney. This is the center of the kidney, where urine collects before moving into the ___, the duct that will bring urine to the bladder. There is one ureter descending from each kidney. renal pelvis, ureter,
The ___ is a hollow muscular organ that holds __ to __ ml of urine. urinary bladder, 400-800
The urinary bladder contains sensors that communicate with the ___. When the bladder is full of urine, a signal from the ___ portion of the NS relaxes the internal sphincter. central nervous system, autonomic,
a ___ controlled external sphincter in the urinary bladder opens during urination, allowing urine to flow into the ____. voluntarily, urethra.
The ___ carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. in males the urethra passes through the ___. Females have a much __ urethra. urethra, penis, shorter
the kidneys have three major functions and they are 1. filter metabolic waste from blood 2. regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in blood 3. blood volume in the cardiovascular system
The influence on fluid balance by the kidneys affects the __ volume in the cardiovascular system, resulting in changes in blood __ and ____ blood, flow rate, blood pressure
Kidneys are primarily responsible for filtering blood coming from the ___ and leaving the kidney by way of the ___. renal artery, renal vein
The organs of filtration (kidneys) also stabilize ___ in the body, water balance
To accomplish both of these tasks, structures within the nephron control diffusion of particular ___ and ___ (movement of water). after the solutes and water have been collected from the glomerulus. solutes and osmosis,
The amount of filtrate collected into the Bowman's capsule is regulated be the blood pressure within the ___. The pressure is generally held constant regardless of changes in ____. glomerulus, systemic blood pressure.
As the filtrate moves through the proximal tubule, loop of henle, distal tubule, and then the collection duct, reabsorption permits regulated amounts of certain useful __ and __ to reenter the blood. In the process, kidneys create __ urine. solutes and water, waste-laden
waste removed from the blood by the kidneys includes excess __ and ___. Also excreted are cellular ___ and substances acquired from the environment that have the potential to poison the body. electrolytes and water, byproducts,
Three metabolic byproducts of the kidneys that must be kept at low levels in the blood are ____ wastes: __, __, and ___. nitrogenous, urea, uric acid, and creatinine
Hormones, drugs, excess hydrogen ions and some toxins acquired from the environment are also removed from our blood by the ___. Then, they are eliminated from our body through ___. kidney, urination
The kidneys regulate how much __ is lost from our body to urine water
This process is primarily influenced by the amount of __ in the blood. This solute enters the filtrate from the glomerulus, but returns to the blood, with the sodium ions leading the ___. sodium chloride (NaCl), chloride ions
The amount of their reabsorption affects ____. consequently, the amount of water reabsorption is dependent on this ___. a common phrase for remembering this concept is ____. osmotic pressure, osmotic pressure, where sodium goes, water follows.
Blood is the vehicle that carries ___ and ___ water to our kidneys. ingested and metabolic
Because ______ causes reduced blood volume, it lowers ______ as a result. Conversely if more than enough water is taken into body, ___ (and blood pressure) rises until mechanisms are engage to bring water levels closer to a ___ range. dehydration, blood pressure, blood volume, homeostatic
One such mechanism is for collecting ducts of the kidneys to lose their ability to permit __, causing urine to become more ___. water reabsorption, dilute
When blood pressure is out of the ____ range, and it is not caused by dehydration or over-hydration, kidneys are employed by the cardiovascular system to return __ to healthy levels. homeostatic, blood pressure
If blood pressure drops, one way it can be returned to homeostasis is by increasing ___ through the reabsorption of water from ____ tubule filtrate. blood volume, renal
In the ____-___-____ system, low blood pressure causes an increase in water reabsorption along with other mechanisms that raise blood pressure. renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
____ is an enzyme released by the kidneys when reduced blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the __ and __ arteries. Renin, aorta and carotid
renin creates _____ from angiotensinogen produced by the liver. angiotensin l
The lungs and kidneys produce an enzyme that converts angiotension l to ____. Angiotensin ll
_____ acts to restore blood volume and blood pressure by constricting blood vessels, stimulating thirst, and stimulating production of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone. angiotensin ll
____ is a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that increases reabsorption of sodium ions aldosterone
Aldosterone leads to an increase in reabsorption of __ and ___. the other secretion stimulated by angiotensin ll and antidiuretic hormone. chloride ions and water
____ any substance that causes water to be lost from the body through urination. diuretic
____ is secreted by the pituitary gland, and it increases the amount of water able to be reabsorbed from the collecting duct. antidiuretic hormone
The effects of ___ and ___ hormone are increase blood volume while decreasing water lost from the body in urine. aldosterone and antidiuretic
The immune system responds to substances on the surfaces of agents that the body perceives as foreign these substances are called _____. antigens.
___ serve as identification badges that allow the immune system to detect agents that are genuinely dangerous to the body what are known as _____. antigens, pathogens
____ are the immune systems response to foreign agents that are not pathogens. If the immune system mistakes part of the body as a pathogen, the resulting pathology is considered an _____. allergies, autoimmune disease.
___ an immune response to a foreign agent that is not a pathogen allergies
___ a pathology that results from the immune system mistaking part of the body as a pathogen autoimmune disease
other incompatibilities generated by the immune system are responsible for __ and __ rejection. organ and tissue
___ a collection of nonspecific barriers and cellular responses that serve an inborn first and second line of defense against pathogens innate immune system
___ live on the skin and other substrates lining areas in contact with the external environment, such as the digestive system, respiratory system, and parts of the female reproductive system, normal bacterial floral
____ microscopic organisms that live in or on the human body without causing it harm commensal microorganisms
___ a substance that kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms with minimal damage to the host antimicrobial
in case of laceration, bacteria and viruses entering through the cute will encounter specific kinds of white blood cells that ingest pathogens by ____. phagocytosis
One type of large phagocytic white blood cell is the ____ macrophage.
After consuming the pathogen, the _____ is able to put parts of the ingested antigens on its cell membrane to alert patrolling ____ macrophage, t cells
When a macrophage takes on this role, it is called an ___. ___ and __ can also function as APCs antigen-presenting cell, dendritic cells, b cells
another function of macrophages is to produce cell signaling molecules ___ that broadcasts the location of pathogens to other white blood cells. cytokines
____ cell signaling molecules released primarily by helper t cells and macrophages. certain cytokines activate cytotoxic t cells cytokines
Other cells of the innate immune system produce ___, which is a white blood cell secretion that triggers capillary permeability and vasodilation. histamine
The effects of histamine make it easier for more white blood cells to leak from ____ into the area in need of defense. capillaries
___ is the resulting redness, swelling, heat, and pain in an area of defense by innate immunity. inflammation
If the pathogens at the site are viruses, some types of white blood cells are able to secret ___ that inhibit virus replication. interferons
if something is ___ it is inherent at birth innate
the body's third line of defense is the ___, a collection of cellular responses triggered by the internal presence of specific antigens. adaptive immune system
____ develops specific defenses to particular antigens. Because each defense is unique, adaptive deals with perceived pathogens at a _____. adaptive immune system, slower rate
One the defense is created in adaptive immune system a ___ of that defense is able to trigger a fast response when the antigen is present again. cellular memory
____ are a category of white blood cells that include ____, ___, ___, and what t cells become. lymphocytes, natural killer cells, b-cells, and t-cells.
t-cells undergo maturation in the ___. thymus
in the presence of an antigen, the mature t-cells become activated into ___, ___, and ___. helper t-cells, cytotoxic t cells, and memory cells.
____ secrete interleukins, chemical messengers that trigger the action of other cells. one of these actions is the attack of foreign cells by the ___ helper t-cells, cytotoxic t-cells
T-cells that become ___ respond so quickly to an antigen upon re-exposure that the body is immune to developing symptoms from the associated pathogen the second time. memory cells
These t-cells are involved in ____, a type of adaptive immunity in which ___ attack parasitic worms, cancer cells, transplanted tissues, or cells that contain pathogens. cell-mediated immunity, t lymphocytes
one of the critical roles of helper t-cell is to activate ___, lymphocytes that mature in __ and make antibodies in response to antigens. b-cells, bone marrow,
the b-cells multiply rapidly into cells called ___ that produce and secrete large amounts of an antibody against a specific antigen. plasma cells
___ also called ___ are blood proteins that have a variable region that fits a specific antigen. These antibodies tag pathogens for later destruction. This kind of adaptive immunity is called ____ also known as ____. antibodies, immunoglobulins, antibody-mediated immunity, humoral immunity
temporary ___ can be gained naturally through the ___ or __ or artificially by receiving a serum containing antibodies. passive immunity, placenta or breast milk
___ is protection against a specific pathogen resulting from the body's production of antibodies in response to the presence of its ___. active immunity, antigens
____ production can be caused by the body's immune response to an infection. a __ which is a solution of dead or weakened pathogens can also be introduced into the body for the purpose of stimulating antibody production against that pathogen. antibody, vaccine,
____ hard calcified material that makes up the skeleton bone
___ maintain bone and their thin cellular projections sense ___ on bone osteocytes, physical stresses
___ make bone osteoblasts
___ break bone down osteoclasts
___ performed by _____ removes calcium from bone so it can enter the blood stream. mineral resorption, osteoclasts
____ use calcium to communicate with each other and rely upon its presence in extracellular fluid for normal ___ inhibition neurons, muscle contraction
sufficient deficits in plasma calcium (___) causes tetany, an ___ and continuous contraction of skeletal muscle. hypocalcemia, involuntary
blood clotting and other vital metabolic reactions require ____ calcium
____ liberate calcium from bone-bound reserves. When too much calcium is depleted from bone, ___ results: bones porous of mineral that are weak and brittle. osteoclasts, osteoporosis,
___ a disease that causes brittle fragile bones osteoporosis
Osteoblast secretions allow ___ in bones, a process that is inhibited elsewhere in the body. This mineral deposition is in the form of ___ (a calcium phosphate salt) mineralization, hyroxyapatite
____ produce a highly organized _____ to which extracellular hydroxyapatite binds. osteoblasts, collagen matrix
___ tough flexible connective tissue found in parts of the body such as the ear. collagen
____ gives bone flexibility while the minerals that encrust those fibers give them strength. collagen protein
another disease ____ also know as ____ the symptoms result from the genetically-based corruption of bones collagen matrix. brittle bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta
the ____ is organized into long concentric layers called ___, like the growth rings of a tree. mineral-laden collagen matrix, lamellae
Between each lamella are microscopic _____ or ___ where bone cells reside. pockets, lacunae
Cell communication between the ___ occurs through microscopic tunnels, ___ which transverse lamellae. lacunae, canaliculi
A grouping of concentric lamellae is called an __ and contains a central canal within its innermost ring. osteon
The ____ (___) are passageways for nerves and blood vessels. The Haversian canals and their contents, running parallel within the center of each osteon, connect by way of perpendicular and oblique ___ (___) canals. central Haversian canals, perforating (Volksmanns) canals
Compared to the ___ (___) bone that makes up the bone plates of the skull and the periphery of most other bones, ____ bone has few osteons. compact (dense), spongy
The ___ bone contained within compact bone allows bone to be lighter and serves as a location for ___ to reside. spongy, bone marrow
___ is a site of blood formation and plays a role in the immune system red bone marrow
___ present within the medullary cavity of adult long bones, is primarily composed of ___. yellow bone marrow, adipose
The longest long bone of the adult body is the ___, so it contains the largest amount of __ bone marrow. femur, yellow
The components of the skeletal system provide ___, ___, and __ attachment points that facilitate motion. leverage, articulations, soft tissue
___ those that have a pronounced longitudinal axis, provide the mechanical advantages of levers where they articulate with other bones. long bones
____ a joint that allows for flexion and extension of the more distal bone along only one plane hinge joint
__ is found in elbow and knee and allows flexion and extension of the more distal bone along only one plane. hinge joint
The shoulders and hips are locations where ___ articulate with other bones in ___. long bones, ball and socket joints
In addition, ball and socket joints allow for ___, ___, ___, and __ of the associated long bone abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation
___ are wrist, ankles, and patella, have a width similar to their height and articulate as gliding joints. short bones
A third category of bones are ___ some such as the plates of the skull connect with each other at fused joints called ___. Bones that do not fit into short, long or flat bone shape categories are called ___ bones. flat bones, sutures, irregular
___ joints such as those between the plates of the skull that do not allow motion sutures
___ the primary structural protein of connective tissue cartilage
Articulation of the skeleton is made possible through its association with soft tissue ___, ___, ____, and the ____ that covers bones. cartilage, tendons, ligaments, periosteum
The ____ of the bone enveloping periosteum microscopically grip into bone and serve as a thin but strong attachment surface for ___ and __. fibers, tendons and ligaments
___ tough connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone tendons
___ a tough connective tissue that attaches bone to bone ligaments
bone-joint interfaces are protected by a covering of ___. hyaline cartilage
Inflammation and pain of a joint in such a state is called ____ osteoarthritis.
A similar condition that also causes joint inflammation and pain is ____. However this is caused by an ___ reaction rather than wear and tear at the joint rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune
___ cartilage is also involved in the bone elongation that happens at the ___ (also called the ___). hyaline, epiphyseal plate, growth plate
An ___ line develops when the plate area stops producing cartilage. epiphyseal
____ is the resulting short stature of individuals when the epiphyseal plate stops growing at a premature age. achondroplastic dwarfism
The skeleton can be thought of as having two major divisions the __ and ___. axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton
The ___ skeleton consists of a skull that shields the brain, a thoracic cage of ribs and sternum that shelters the heart and lungs, and a series of vertebrae in which the spinal cord resides axial skeleton
The axial skeleton plays a major role in __ and ____. metabolism and movement
in the skull, the mandible articulates with the temporal bone to allow for the motions of ___ (__) mastication (chewing)
sinuses inside the __, __, __, and __ bones are mucous membrane-lined cavities connecting with the nasal cavity frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary
The tiniest bones in the skull are the three ___ in the middle ears. auditory ossicles
the ___ is a point of tongue and larynx attachment, and it is unique in being the only bone that is not connected to the rest of the skeleton. hyoid bone
The vertebral column is made of three groups of similarly shaped bones __, __, and ___. cervical, thoracic, and lumbar
on the cranial end of the vertebral column is __ also known as the ___. cervical C1, atlas.
The C1 or atlas is the rocker between __ and the ___ of the skull that allows for the __ motion of the head C2 and occipital, yes
there are __ cervical vertebrae 7
C2 is also known as the ___ and it contains a vertical projection into it, a pivot that allows for the __ motion of the head. Between vertebrae are intervertebral discs made of ____. axis, no, cartilage
the upper region of the ___ skeleton includes the pectoral girdle made of a right and left scapula and clavicles. appendicular
upper limbs consist of the __ and a pair of bones called the __ and __ that articulate with the __ of the wrist. The ___ of the palm articulate with the __ of the fingers. humerus, radius and ulna, carpals, phalanges
The lower region of the skeleton includes the left and right hip bones of the pelvic girdle. lower limbs consist of the __ and the __, and __ that articulate with the __ of the foot. between them and the phalanges of the toes are the ___. femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, and metatarsals
___ is the portion of the skeleton made up of our appendages, the bones of our arms, legs, hands, and feet. appendicular skeleton
___ is a protein kept in the kidney release is bad albumin
_____- normally found in urine creatinine
____- normally found in urine (amount depends upon diet and amount of aldosterone) sodium ions
___ produces thyroid hormone and calcitonin thyroid
____ releases hormones hypothalamus
___ produces melatonin pineal
____- directed by the somatic nervous system voluntary
____- are involuntary physiological Reponses often provoked by stress sympathetic
____- primitive brain structure that is involved in memory and emotion limbic
____- involves process of thought. cognitive
_____- uppermost layer of skin, predominantly composed of dead keratinocytes stratum corneum
____- contains a layer of keratinocytes filled with colorless protein eleidin, later converted to keratin stratum lucidum
_____-thickest layer of skin containing keratinocytes, immune dendritic cells and sensory cells does not contain melanocytes stratum spinosum
___- deepest layer of the epidermis and contains melanin-producing cells called melanocytes stratum basale
_____ fibrous protein found in cell membranes vinculin
___ found in hair and nails and on the outer layer of the skin cells called keratinocytes keratin
____-found in skin gives it the ability to rebound from being distorted elastin
____- when hemoglobin in red blood cells does not transport enough oxygen anemia
____-cancer of white blood cells leukemia
____-involved in ATP production do not synthesize proteins for secretion Mitochondria
_____-involved in protein production and secretion lysosomes
______- associated with ribosomes, which synthesize proteins. Therefore an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum allow for the production of protein for secretion enough endoplasmic reticulum
_____-iron containing and absorbs oxygen hemoglobin
____-oxygen-transporting pigment in muscle myoglobin
_____-released by the autonomic nervous system that causes skeletal muscles to contract acetylcholine
______-local regulator however, its functions as a vasodilator rather than a muscle contraction nitric oxide
____-biogenic amine of the central nervous system and typically involved with sleep, mood, attention, and learning. Dopamine
____-inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine
_____ fluid found in joints synovium
____- joint between 2 bones suture
____-air into lungs inspiration
____-passing air through a liquid aeration
____-means breathing ventilation
_____-adding more oxygen oxygenation
____-tissue covering the heart pericardium
____-tissue covering bones periosteum
_____-cartilaginous joint between 2 bones symphysis
____-cover the lungs pleura
____-decreases mechanical stress that results in immobility can lead to demineralization (induces bone growth) demineralization
_____-process of transforming cartilage into bone tissue (increasing bone mass) ossification
____-curvature of the spine kyphosis
____-bile production not storage liver
____ secrets fluid to protect sperm in males) cowper
______- (sesamoid bones which develop in response to strain.) patellae
Created by: xokitty17xo


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