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teas A&P

teas ATI 6th edition study guide

1. the ___ system comprises the closed system of blood pumped around the body by the heart through a network of arteries, veins, and capillaries, as well as the open lymphatic system. 2. the ____ or ____ system describes the movement of blood and lymph around the body. Which permits nutrient distribution, waste removal, communication and protection. 1. circulatory system 2. cardiovascular and circulatory
1. the right lung has __ lobes and the left lung has ___ lobes. 2. ____ the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body 1. 3, 2 2. hemoglobin
1. ___ the movement of air in and out of the body via inhalation and exhalation. a combination of muscle action and negative pressure. 2. __ the windpipe, which connects the larynx to the lungs 3. ___ the amount of air breathed in a normal inhalation or exhalation 4. the small amount of stale air (gas/ carbon dioxide) in the lung (trapped in the alveoli) is called _____ 1. ventilation 2. trachea 3. tidal volume 4. residual capacity
1. ___ is a lipid mixture secreted by alveoli(cells) of the lungs that reduces the surface tension thus preventing the alveoli from sticking together. 2. ___ a tough, protective double membrane around the lungs and inside the chest cavity 3. __ the passage of fluid to an organ or a tissue 1. surfactant 2. pleura 3, perfusion
1. ____ a genetic disorder that affects the lungs and other organs, characterized by difficulty breathing, coughing up sputum, and lung infections 2. ____ a lung disease characterized by inflamed, narrowed airways and difficulty breathing. 1. cystic fibrosis 2. asthma
1. ___ small passages in the lungs that connect bronchi and alveoli 2. ____ the main passageways directly attached to the lungs. 3. ____ tiny air sacs in the lungs where exchange of oxygen takes place. 4. ___ are thin-walled structures that look like clusters of grapes and are the site of gas exchange 1. bronchioles 2. bronchi 3. alveoli 4. bronchioles
1. the respiratory system works interdependently with the ___ system 2. ___ and ______ systems both consist of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. 1. circulatory system 2. circulatory and respiratory
1. ___ divides the body horizontally creating an upper (superior) and lower (inferior) body. 2. ____ if the cut is made exactly down the midline of the body, the right and left halves of the body are equal 3. ___ divides the body lengthwise into right and left portions 1. transverse plane 2. midsagittal 3. sagittal
1. ___ means away from the center 2. ___ means that the part is located in the center 3. ____ means that the body is away from the structure of the body ex: bones 4. ___ means that a part is located on or near the surface of the body ex: skin 1. peripheral 2. central 3. deep 4. superficial
1. ___ means that a part is farther away from the point of attachment than is another part 2. ___ means that the structure is nearer the point of attachment, often the truck of the body. 3. ___ means away from the midline of the body 4. ___ another word for posterior. means toward the back surface 1. distal 2. proximal 3. lateral 4. dorsal
1. ___ another word for anterior. means toward the front surface (belly surface) 2. ____means that a part is located below another part or is closer to the feet 3. ____ the body is standing erect, with the face forward, the arms at the sides, and the toes and palms of the hands forward 4. ____ means that a part is above another part or is closer to the head 1. ventral 2. inferior 3. anatomical position 4. superior
1. the middle of the body or towards the belly button is called 2. the back of the body or back surface is called 3. the front of the body is called 4. sagittal or median indicates ___ and ____ 1. medial 2. posterior 3. anterior 4. left and right
1. transverse or cross-sectional plane indications ___ and ___ 2. coronal and frontal plane indicate __ and __ 3. ____ Planes dividing the body to describe locations: sagittal, coronal, and transverse. 1. top and bottom 2. front and back 3. reference planes
1. ____ performs several functions, including providing a framework of support, protecting vital organs, articulating muscle to provide resistance for movement, and serving as a location for the synthesis of blood cells. 2. ___ coordinates input from various sources to provide instructions for the body’s response to stimuli. 3. ____ processes blood to remove wastes and to retain electrolytes and water. 1. bones 2. brain 3. kidney
1. ____ cells have large numbers of mitochondria to provide energy for movement. 2. ____ that secrete proteins have a large amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, 1. muscle 2. glands
1, _____ which stores and processes instructions contained in the DNA that tell the cell what its functions are. 2. _____ which convert energy present in chemical bonds of food accessible to the cell; 3. ____ carry out protein synthesis 1. nucleus 2. mitochondria 3. ribosomes
1. organs that work together are called ____ 2. Tissues are collected into ______, which carry out a single task, such as oxygenating blood (lungs) or filtering out wastes (kidneys). 3. Cells with the same function are collected into larger groups called _____ 1. organ systems 2. organs 3. tissues
1. ____ perform tasks including obtaining energy from food and reproduction. 2. ___ the basic structural unit of an organism from which living things are created. 1. organelles 2. cell
1. the breathing control centers of the _____ control respiration through monitoring carbon dioxide levels and blood ph. 2. the _____ performs the vital functions of transporting nutrients, wastes, chemical messengers, and immune molecules. 1. medulla oblongata and pons 2. cardiovascular system
1. the closed ____ system is a double looped system consisting of thick walled arteries that transport blood away from the heart, thinner-walled veins that transport blood to the heart, and capillaries made of a single layer endothelium that form a network. 2. the closed double-loop system transports ____ 3. the pulmonary loop carries ___ from the ____ ventricle of the hear to the lungs where it is ___ and returns the blood to the left atrium. 1. circulatory system 2. blood 3. deoxygenated blood, right. oxygenated
1. systole indicates ____ of the heart muscle causes blood to push against the muscular walls of the arteries to a max pressure. 2. diastole is ___ of the heart muscle elasticity in the vessel walls recoils and the pressure decreases to a minimum. 1. contraction 2. relaxation
1. the systole causes the __ sound 2. the diastole causes the __ sound 1. lub 2. dub
1. the lub-dub sound are contractions controlled by the _____ called the _______. 2. when the ventricles contract making the lub sound. the empty ventricles are filled by blood pushed out during ____ systole. at the same time the _____ valves in he aorta and pulmonary arteries close, preventing blood from _____ into the ventricles making the __ sound. 1. pacemaker, sinoatrial node 2. atrial, semilunar, falling back, dub
1. ____ contains nutrients, hormones, antibodies, and other immune proteins 2. ____ cells contain hemoglobin and transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. 3. _____ dissolves in plasma and is removed by the lungs. 1. blood plasma 2. red blood cells 3. carbon dioxide
1. ___ blood vessels that deliver (carry away) blood from the heart into other parts of the body 2. ____ small blood vessels that walls are only one cell thick, and connect arterioles to venules. they exchange gases and nutrients. 1. arteries 2. capillary
1. ___ refills the heart with blood. which is also known as the rest phase (when the chambers relax and refill) 2. ___ the portion of the cardiac cycle in which the heart expels blood 1. diastole 2. systole
1. ___ the muscle that pumps blood throughout the body 2. ___ blood vessels that carry blood to the heart 1. heart 2. vein
1. ____ white blood cells which protect the body against disease/ pathogens 2. ____ clear fluid that moves throughout the lymphatic system to fight disease and it is filtered through hundreds of small organs. 3. ___ a subtype of white blood cell found in lymph 1. leukocyte 2. lymph 3, lymphocyte
___ the pale yellow component of blood that carries red blood cells, white cells, and platelets throughout the body. (liquid) plasma
1. ____ of proteins is initiated in the stomach by the action of the enzyme pepsin, 2. There are three main secretions of the stomach: pepsinogen (____ cells), mucus (_____ cells), and hydrochloric acid (_____ cells). 1. chemical digestion 2. chief, goblet, parietal
1. contents (now called chime) pass through the pyloric sphincter into the ______, which is the first part of the small intestine. 2. In the duodenum, chyme is neutralized by _____ in pancreatic secretions. 3. The duodenum receives______ juices from the _______, which helps neutralize acid chyme. 4._____ The opening of the rectum from which solid waste is expelled. 1. duodenum 2. bicarbonate 3. alkaline bile, gall bladder 4. anus
1. ____ A mass of food that has been chewed and swallowed. 2. ___ The semifluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestine. 3. ______ The break down of food by enzymes for absorption. bolus 2. chyme 3. enzymatic digestion
1. ___ The organ that stores bile. 2. ____ Also known as the colon, where vitamins and water are absorbed before feces is stored prior to elimination. 3. ____ The organ that produces bile, regulates glycogen storage, and performs other bodily functions. 1. gallbladder 2, large intestine 3. liver
1. ___ The oral/ digestive system cavity at the entry to the alimentary canal. 2. ____ The gland of the digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin and secretes pancreatic juices. 3. _____ The organ between the esophagus and small intestine in which the major portion of digestion occurs. 1. mouth 2. pancreas 3. stomach
1. ____ The clear liquid (amylase and lipase) found in the mouth, also known as spit. 2. _____ A series of muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract. 3. ____ The part of the GI tract between the stomach and large intestine that includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, where digestion and absorption of food occurs 4. ____ The last section of the large intestine, ending with the anus. 1. saliva 2. peristalisis 3. small intestine 4. rectum
1. Salivary amylase, salivary lipase are produced in which organ? 2. Gastric lipase, pepsin(ogen), HCl are produced in which organ 3. Bile (stored in gall bladder) is produced in which organ 1. mouth 2. stomach 3. liver
1. Pancreatic juice (bicarbonate, lipase, trypsin(ogen), proteases and amylase) is produced in which organ 2. Brush border enzymes (proteases, lactase, disaccharidases) is produced in which organ 3. Gastrin, ghrelin is a major hormone of? 1. pancreas 2. small intestine 3. stomach
1. Secretin, somatostatin, insulin, glucagon are major hormones of 2. Cholecystokinin, somatostatin, secretin, motilin are major hormones of 1. pancreas 2. small intestine
This system affects every part of the body and is vital in controlling involuntary and voluntary movement. neuromuscular system
1. ____ are long bundles of axons that transmit signals from the central nervous system. 2. _____ nerves send messages to the central nervous system, 3. ______ nerves send messages out to the muscles 4. ___ The structure that allows neurons to pass signals to other neurons. 1. nerves 2. sensory/ afferent 3. motor/ efferent 4. synapse
1. The _______ nervous system controls involuntary actions involving cardiac and smooth muscle, such as heart rhythm, digestion, and breathing. 2. ____ nerve signals make skeletal muscles do a deliberate action such as walking, throwing, or typing. 3. _______ The part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates unconscious body functions such as breathing and heart rate 1. autonomic/ involuntary 2. voluntary 3. autonomic nervous system
1. each muscle consistes of long strands of proteins called ____ (thin filaments) and ______ (thick filaments). 2. ___ a nerve fiber that carries a nerve impulse away from the neuron cell body. 3. ___ A bundle of axons that transmits electrical impulses to peripheral organs. 1. actin, myosin 2. axon 3. nerve
1. Skeletal muscles work by 2. ___ shortening or elongating a muscle to perform muscle actions 3. __ Without intentional control 1. contracting 2. contraction 3. involuntary
1. ____ Soft tissue that produces force and motion to move the body 2. ____ An involuntary movement in reaction to a stimulus 3. ___ Release of tension (exhalation) 4. ___ performed on purpose 1. muscle 2. reflex 3. relaxation 4. voluntary
1. male gametes= 2. ____ Organ for elimination of urine and sperm from the male body. 3. ____ The gland in males that controls the release of urine and secretes a part of semen that enhances motility and fertility of sperm. 1. sperm 2. penis 3. prostate
1. ___ Female sex hormones. 2. ____ Organ in which eggs are produced for reproduction. 3. ____ Tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus. 4. ___ The passage that forms the lower part of the uterus. 1. estrogen 2. ovary 3. fallopian tubes 4. cervix
1. ___ The pouch of skin that contains the testicles 2. ____ The organs that produce sperm; also called testes. 3. ______ The hormone that stimulates male secondary sexual characteristics. 1. scrotum 2. testicles 3. testosterone
1. ___ The tube that connects the bladder to the exterior of the female body. 2. ___ also known as the womb 3. ____ The tube that connects the external genitals to the cervix, which is the opening to the uterus. 1. urethra 2. uterus 3. vagina
1. ____ The duct in which sperm moves from a testicle to the urethra. 2. the ___ is the primary external sexual organ of the male 3. gonads= 1. vas deferens 2. penis 3. testes
the ___ system contains organs and glands that do these two things. 1. protect body 2. regulate temp
1. ___ is the largest organ? 2. epidermis is the skin 3. dermis is the skin 4. subcutaneous or hypodermis is the skin 1. skin 2. outer layer 3. middle layer 4. inner layer
1. skin also produces vitamin 2. ___ the thin layer of tissue that covers the body 3, ___ perspiration excreted by sweat glands through the skin 1. D 2. skin 3. sweat
1, ___ to become narrower 2. ___ to become wider 3. ___ elimination of metabolic waste from the body 1. constrict 2. dilate 3. excretion
1. __ an organ that secretes a substance 2. ___ the organ that stores bile 3. ___ an organ system comprised of skin and its associated organs 1. gland 2. gall bladder 3. integumentary system
1. the ___ system is a set of organs that secrete hormones directly into the Circulatory system 2. all body systems are regulated by the ____ system in some way. 3. the glands in the endocrine system send ____ through the blood to control the function of that organ 1. endocrine 2. endocrine 3. chemical messengers
1. the pancreas releases 2. The pancreas is also an __ gland. 3. ___ the gland of the digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin and secretes pancreatic juices. 1. insulin 2. endocrine 3. pancreas
1. the ___ regulates many body functions including blood production, appetite, reproduction, brain function, sleep, salt & water homeostasis, growth, sexual development, response to stress ad injury. 2. The kidneys regulate how much __ is lost from our body to urine 3. __ a gland above the kidney that produces hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, and other functions. 1. endocrine system 2. water 3. adrenal
1. __ a chemical messenger produced by a gland and transported by the blood stream that regulates specific processes in the body. 2. ____ an endocrine gland in the neck that produces parathyroid hormone 3. ____ a small gland near the center of the brain that secretes melatonin 1. hormone 2, parathyroid 3. pineal gland
1. ___ the endocrine gland at the base of the rain that controls growth and development. 2. __ the gland in the neck that secrets hormones that regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate. 3. The ___ is the master control gland in the endocrine system. 1. pituitary 2. thyroid gland 3. pituitary gland
1. ___ the lymphoid organ that produces T-cells. 2. The thymus is also called the lymphoid organ and it is the place where the immune systems ___ are produced 3. t-cells undergo maturation in the ___. 1. thymus 2. t-cells 3. thymus
1. ____ is a necessary function for salt and water homeostasis and getting rid of wastes. 2. The organs in the _____ system, or urogenital, system function in the excretory process. 3. kidneys make __ and filter ___ 1. excretion 2. genitourinary 3. urine, blood
1. urine travels through the ____ to the bladder 2. Kidneys also stabilize ___ and maintain ___ it also produces the active form of ____. 3. The functional unit of the Kidney is the ____ it is responsible for filtering and reabsorbing various molecules 1. ureters 2. water balance, blood pressure, vitamin D 3. nephron
1. ___ play a vital role in maintaining blood and blood pressure. 2. The kidneys also produce_____, a hormone that regulates blood pressure by retaining or removing water and salt. 3. ____ The duct that conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder. 1. kidneys 2. renin 3. ureter
1. ___ The system comprised of the heart and blood vessels. 2. ___ have one-way valves to prevent blood from flowing back into the system. 3. the filtered ___ fluid is essentially ___ blood plasma and is returned to the cardiovascular system via the veins. 1. cardiovascular system 2. veins 3. lymph, cleaned
1. ____ The pair of organs that regulate fluid balance and filter waste from the blood 2. ____ The two branches of the abdominal aorta that supply the kidneys with oxygenated blood 3. ___ Veins connecting the kidney to the inferior vena cava that drain the kidney and carry blood purified by the kidney. 1. kidneys 2. renal arteries 3. renal vein
1. ____ The outer layer of the kidney. 2. ____ The innermost part of the kidney. 3. ____ The center of the kidney where urine collects before moving to the ureter 1. renal cortex 2. renal medulla 3. renal pelvis
1. ____ The main nitrogenous part of urine. 2. ____ The duct that conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder. 3. ____ The structure that stores urine in the body until elimination. 4. ____ Liquid waste matter excreted by the kidneys. 1. urea 2. ureter 3. urinary bladder 4. urine
1. The ______ prevents entry of pathogens through the presence of barriers composed of the skin and secretions such as acid, enzymes, and salt. 2. if the external barrier of the immune system fails then the _____ identifies, targets, and remembers the pathogen. 3. there are two types of immune systems they are? 1. immune system 2. adaptive immune system 3. innate and adaptive
1. The _____ protects the body from disease-causing agents. 2. These are all examples of Skin, Hair, Mucus, Earwax, Secretions (acid, salt, enzymes), Normal flora. Antimicrobials, Inflammation, Interferons. Complement. NK lymphocytes, Phagocytes (including APC) 3. the innate immune system is 1. immune system 2. innate immune 3. nonspecific response
1. These are all examples of Reaction: Cytotoxic T-cells kill pathogen Prevention: B-cells produce antibodies Activated by antigen and helper, T-cells Helper T-cells are activated by APC 2. the adaptive immune system responds to 3. ____ Able to change as needed. 1. adaptive immune system 2. specific antigens 3. adaptive
1. ____ A blood protein that counteracts a specific antigen. 2.____ A toxin that stimulates an immune response in the body. 3. ____ A cell that displays foreign antigens with major histocompatibility complexes on their surfaces 1. antibody 2. antigen 3. antigen presenting cell
1. ____ A substance that kills or inhibits growth of micro-organisms with minimal damage to the host. 2. ___ Cells that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens. 3. ____ and ______ cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) 1. antimicrobial 2. B-cells 3. macrophages and dendritic cells
1. Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through _____ 2. Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through toll like receptors and trigger an inflammation or _____ 3. The _____ immune system responds by remembering signature molecules, called antigens, from pathogens to which the body has previously been exposed. 1. toll like receptors 2. antigen presentation 3. adaptive
1. ___ lymphocyte cells that attack host cells that harbor intracellular pathogens; 2. Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved _______ 3. Macrophages and dendritic cells respond to conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through _____ and trigger an inflammation or _____ presentation. 1. natural killer (nk) 2. pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) 3. toll-like receptors, antigen
1. The ______ system responds by remembering signature molecules, called antigens, from pathogens to which the body has previously been exposed. 2. The adaptive immune system’s functional cells are lymphocytes called____-cells and ___-cells. 3. When a ____ T-cell encounters a cytotoxic T-cell that recognizes the same antigen, it produces ____ that activate the ____ T-cell. 1. adaptive immune system 2. T & B 3. helper, cytokines, cytotoxic
1. The helper T-cell also activates ____-cells that recognize the pathogen’s signature antigen. 2. this induces the B-cell to multiply rapidly into secretory cells called ____ cells, which produce large amounts of an _____ (Ig, or immunoglobulins) that can bind the antigen. 3. If antigen levels subside, plasma cells stop making antibodies and produce ____ cells that remember the antigen. 1. B 2. plasma cells, antibody 3. memory
1. Overactive immune systems can target innocuous foreign particles like pollen, causing the body to go into overdrive by producing huge amounts of IgE that trigger histamine release from mast cells, causing _____ with sneezing and mucus secretion. 2. Alternately, the immune system can mistakenly target a host molecule as a foreign antigen, leading to ______ 1. allergies 2. autoimmune disease
1. ____ A divider between parts of the body. 2. ____ The group of proteins in blood serum and plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particulate antigens. 3. ___ Antigen-presenting cells that process antigen material and present it to T-cells. 1. barrier 2. complement 3. dendritic cells
1. ____. means An antibody. 2. ___ means just born 3. ______ A large white blood cell that ingests foreign material. 1. immunoglobulin 2, innate 3. macrophage
1. _____ A lymphocyte that responds to an antigen upon reintroduction 2. ______ Ingestion of particles by a cell or phagocyte. 3. ____ A white blood cell that produces a single type of antibody. 1. memory cell 2. phagocytosis 3. plasma cell
1. ___ White blood cells that mature in the thymus and participate in immune response. 2. The _____ has three main functions: movement, protection, and metabolism. 3. Bone is a dynamic_____ that is made and broken down according to need. 1. T-cell 2. skeletal system 3. tissue
1. ___- Hard, calcified material that makes up the skeleton. 2. ____ Micro scoping canals in ossified bone. 3. ____ Channels in bone that contain blood vessels and nerves. 1. bone 2. canaliculi 3. haversian canal
1. ____ a group of diseases that affect collagen and result in fragile bones. 2. ___ Degenerative joint disease 1. brittle bone disease 2. osteoarthritis
1. ____ Tough, elastic connective tissue found in parts of the body such as the ear. 2. ____ The primary structural protein of skin/ connective tissue. 3. _____ Flattened bone cells that come from osteoblasts. 1. cartilage 2. collagen 3. lining cells
1. ____ Layers of bone, tissue, or cell walls. 2. __ which contains nerves and blood vessels. 3. Bone is synthesized in tubular structures called 1. iamellae 2. periosteum 3. osteon
1. ___ Cells that make bone. 2. ____ Cells that remove/ break down bone. 3. ___ mature bone cells 1. osteoblasts 2. osteoclasts 3. osteocytes
1. ____ have long compact hollow shafts containing marrow. 2. ____ are bones that have the same length and width. 3. ____ are not hollow but contain red bone marrow, and produce blood cells. 1. long bones 2. short bones 3. flat bones
1. ____ ends are usually made of spongy bone with air pockets. 2. ____ have nonsymmetrical shapes and include the bones of the skull, knee, and elbow, and hip bones. 1. long bones 2. irregular bones
1. humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, and fibula are examples of ___ 2. The bones of the toes (metatarsals) and collarbone (clavicle) are ____ 3. scapula, ribs, and sternum are examples of ___ 1. long bones 2. short bones 3. flat bones
1. Typically, bones are articulated to other bones through ____and to muscle through ____. 2. The articulating surfaces of bones are covered in _____ which prevents them from grinding against each other. 3. Bone is covered by a fibrous sheath called the 1. ligaments, tendons 2. hyaline cartilage 3. periosteum
1. ____ Cylindrical structures that comprise compact bone. 2. ____ Channels in bone that transmit blood vessels and communicate with Haversian canals. 3. ___ is a space inside of long bones that contains yellow bone marrow. 1. osteons 2. Volkmann canal 3. medullary cavity
1. ___ A disease that causes brittle, fragile bones. 2. ___A progressive disease that causes joint inflammation and pain. 3. ___ disease (osteogenesis imperfecta) is due to a genetic defect in the _____ and causes bones to break easily. 1. osteoporosis 2. rheumatoid arthritis 3. brittle bone, collagen matrix
1. ___ immunity is a defense that employs B-cells to create antibodies that tag pathogens later. 2. If the external barrier is breached, the ___ line of defense is the internal aspect of the ___ immune system, a collection of nonspecific cellular responses ( inflammation, production of interferon, ingestion of pathogens by phagocytes). 1. antibody-mediated 2. second, innate
1. Contraction of the atria is caused by the impulse of the _____ node 2. The ___ fiber impulse causes the contraction of the ventricles 3. contraction of the atria followed by the ventricles is called ____ 1. sinoatrial 2. purkinje 3. systole
1. A _____ (a heart attack) occurs when the cardiac muscle dies as a result of blood flow blockage to that tissue. 2. epinephrine also known as adrenal regulates __ and __ 3. the heartbeat is also known as the ____ cycle 1. myocardial infarction 2. heart rate and blood pressure 3. cardiac
1. ___ of the small intestine provide a greater nutrient-absorbing surface area. When they are damaged the nutrient-absorbing surface area is _____ 2. The small intestine is divided into three major regions and they are ___, ___ and ___. 3. after the stomach the food (chyme) is pushed into the ___ 1. Villi, diminished 2. duodenum, Jejunum, and ileum 3. small intestine
1. The _____ is a section of the brain that serves as an integration center between the endocrine and nervous systems. 2. ___ a bundle of nerve fibers that transmits electrical impulses towards and away from the brain and spinal cord. 3. melatonin is a hormone that plays a role in maintaining circadian rhythms is produced by the ___ in the center of the brain. 1. hypothalamus 2. nerve 3. pineal gland
1. ____ is produced by the skin when a cholesterol-based precursor is modified by the presence of ultraviolet radiation. 2. ___ live on the skin and other substrates lining areas in contact with the external environment, such as the digestive system, respiratory system, and parts of the female reproductive system, 3. melanocytes produces and distribute____, which is skin pigment. 1. Vitamin D 2. normal bacterial floral 3. melanin
1. ____ liberate calcium from bone-bound reserves. this mineral resorption removes calcium from bone so it can enter the bloodstream 2. _____ secretions allow mineralization in bones that is inhibited elsewhere in the body. 3. ___ are star-shaped cells that maintain bone and are able to sense physical stress. 4. ___ is a type of bone having fewer osteons and, therefore, lighter than compact (dense) bone, it is a site of red bone marrow 1. osteoclasts 2. osteoblasts 3. osteocytes 4. spongy bone
1. ___ are the structures in cells where proteins are made 2. _____ fibrous protein found in cell membranes 3. _____-involved in protein production and secretion 1. ribosomes 2. vinculin 3. lysosomes
1. ___ causes increased residual volume because its destruction of elastic lung tissue allows greater than normal lung expansion with reduced/ poor recoil and increased residual volume. 2. ___ a contagious infection caused by bacteria that mainly affects the lungs but can also affect any other organ including bone, brain, and spine. 3. ___ an infection of the air sacs in one or both the lungs/ characterized by severe cough with phlegm, fever, chills, and difficulty in breathing 1. Emphysema 2. tuberculosis 3. pneumonia
1. the ___ lining is the normal site for implantation of a zygote. 2. baby is considered full term at 3. the ___ allows the fetus and parent blood supplies to network. 1. Uterine 2. 40 weeks 3. placenta
1. ___ is the movement of substances from the peritubular capillaries to the renal tubule. therefore, this is the opposite of re-absorption. 2. ___ returns substances from the renal tubule to peritubular capillaries. 3. ____ is a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that increases reabsorption of sodium ions 1. secretion 2. reabsorption 3. aldosterone
1. the ___ controls balance and equilibrium 2. the ___ consists of four lobes that control various functions, which do not include balance and equilibrium. 3. the ____ lobe is the part of the cerebrum that controls processes such as language and sensory information 4. the ___ lobe is the part of the cerebrum that controls vision. 1. cerebellum 2. cerebrum 3. parietal 4. occipital
1. _____ is a signal traveling through a chain of neurons, rather than along a single neuron. 2. ___ describes one way to create an action potential, rather than describing an action potential jumping from node to node in an axon. 3. ___ conduction is the process by which an action potential jumps from node to node on a myelinated axon 1. reverberation 2. temporal summation 3. saltatory
1. ___ refers to passing an electrical impulse from on nerve to another, rather than the conduction of an action potential along one nerve 2. ___ tissue moves the body and its contents by contraction 3. __ tissue receives stimuli from the internal or external environment and communicates through electrical impulses with the rest of the body. 1. ricocheting 2. muscle 3. nervous
1. They're four basic types of tissues and they are 2. ___ tissue covers body surfaces, lines body cavities, and serves as a protective barrier. 3. ___ tissue connects other tissues to each other and serves to bind and support body parts. 1. Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues 2. epithelial 3. connective
1. the kidney main function is to ___ and filter ___ from blood. 2. the primary organ of the urinary system is the 3. The kidney includes structures where ___ is filtered, locations where filtered material can be reabsorbed by blood, and places where what is not reabsorbed collects as ____ 1. recycle nutrients, wastes 2. kidneys 3. blood, urine
1. respiratory system performs the function of exchanging the gas of 2. the process of aerating the lungs is known as ____ 3. the __ is a shared passageway where both air and food contains an opening for the digestive system, as well as the continuation of the respiratory system at the glottis. 1. CO2 for O2 2. ventilation 3. pharynx
1. the term skull means 2. ___ joints such as those between the plates of the skull that do not allow motion 1. cranium 2. sutures
1. the ____ includes the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, oral cavity, pharynx, glottis and the larynx. 2. the ____ begins at the trachea and extends into the lungs via repeated branching of bronchus into bronchioles and ending at the alveoli, where gas exchange occurs. 3. ___ also known as the windpipe, consists of a rigid tube of cartilaginous rings and lies anterior to the esophagus. 1. upper respiratory tract 2. lower respiratory tract 3. trachea
1. a flap called the ____ covers the opening of the glottis during swallowing to prevent food and liquids from entering the lungs 2. the ___ is the passageway for air through the vocal chords and leads to the larynx, commonly called the voice box. 3. the _____ splits into two main branches that enter the lungs as right and left primary bronchi. 1. epiglottis 2. glottis 3. trachea
1. ___ is produced in the larynx when air from the lungs is forced against the vocal chords 2. The ___ begins the lower respiratory tract. 3, the walls of the alveoli are single layer of ___ tissue, which allows for the simple diffusion of gases in and out. 1. sound 2. trachea 3. epithelial
1. the alveoli are surrounded by ___ whose walls also consists of ___ cells. 2. inhaled oxygen diffuses into the ___ in the surrounding capillaries and from there into the nearby tissues. 3. ___ diffuses out of the tissues into the red blood cells and then the alveoli to be exhaled from the lungs. 1. capillaries, epithelial 2. red blood cells 3. carbon dioxide
1. increasing levels of C02 causes an increase in ___ ions, which makes the blood more acidic. 2. The ___ is the amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration or deep breath. 3. the ___ is the amount of gas that can be exhaled after a maximum inspiration, as in exhaling after a deep breath. 1. H+ 2. total lung capacity (TLC) 3. vial capacity (VC)
1. the vital capacity plus the residual volume is equal to the total 2. water in the lungs causes and increase in surface tension making the water "sticky" in the alveoli which causes both sides of the alveoli to stick together causing collapse of the lungs, known as 3. lung compliance depends on two characteristics the __ of lung tissue and the ___ surface tension 1. lung capacity 2. atelectasis 3. elasticity, alveolar.
1. Asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer cause increased resistance to lung expansion, resulting in a low ____. 2. ___ is a recessive gene mutation causes the normally slippery mucous secreted in the lungs to become thick and sticky. this atypical mucus can clog the airways, leading to severe breathing problems and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. 3.___ can cause shortness of breath due to the decreased concentration of oxygen in the air. 1. compliance 2. cystic fibrosis 3. high altitudes
1. the ____ is made up of four main components: the heart, blood vessels, blood, and lymphatic system. 2. The ___ is a large muscular organ comprised of cardiac tissue called __ and is surrounded by a sac called the ____. 3. the heart contains four chambers divided by a _____. 1. cardiovascular system 2. heart, myocardium, pericardium 3. median septum
1. The two ___ are the receiving chambers (heart) and the two ____ are the pumping chambers. 2. the atria and ventricle are separated by the _____ valves. 3. The right side of the heart pumps _____ from the heart towards the lungs and is called the ____ system. 1. superior atria, inferior ventricles 2. atrioventricular 3. deoxygenated blood, pulmonary
1. the left side/ ventricle of the heart receives ___ from the lungs and pumps it toward the rest of the body parts and is known as the ____ system. 2.The blood pumped by the heart travels through the extensive ___ of the ___. 3. ___ have a thick layer of smooth muscle in their walls to withstand the pressure of the forceful heartbeat. 1. oxygenated blood, systemic 2. conduits, vessels 3. arteries
1. ___ carry blood from body parts towards the heart 2. __are connected to the capillary beds via smaller branches called venules. 3. ___ are a major component of blood and contain the protein ____, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and helps return carbon dioxide from he tissues back to the lungs. 1. veins 2. veins 3. red blood cells, hemoglobin
1. the ____ is a straw-colored liquid that contains water, immune proteins, and other nutrients. 2. red blood cells are called 3. white blood cells are called 1. plasma 2. erythrocytes 3.leukocytes
1. The ____ function in the immune response and defend the body against disease. 2. the ____ are responsible for the clotting mechanism 3. Like veins, ____ vessels are thin-walled and contain one-way valves to maintain flow in one direction only. 1. leukocytes 2. platelets 3. lymph
1. ____ are entwined with cardiovascular capillaries and absorb excess tissue fluid and blood plasma that leaks from the capillaries. 2. ___ seek put pathogens in the fluid and makes antibodies, which target the pathogens so that other cells can destroy them. 3. the filtered ___ fluid is essentially ___ blood plasma and is returned to the cardiovascular system via the veins. 1. lymphatic capillaries 2. lymphocytes 3. lymph, cleaned
1. the heartbeat begins with the triggering of an impulse within the ____, known as the ____, which is located in the upper wall of the right atrium. 2. the impulse for the heartbeat spreads from __ to ___ atria. 3. when the impulse reaches the ____ , also in the right atrial wall, and travels along the atrioventricular bundle down the right and left branches in the septum and finally along the ___ in the walls of the ventricle, causing the filled ventricles to contract. 1. sinoatrial (SA) node, pacemaker 2. right to left 3. atrioventricular node (AV), purkinje fibers
1. External control of the heart in managed in the cardiac center of the brain and modulated by the hormones ___ and _____. 2. The pulmonary system receives deoxygenated blood into the right atrium from the body via the via the ___ and ___. 1. epinephrine and norepinephrine. 2. superior and inferior vena cava
1. contraction of the right atrium pumps blood through the right ___ into the ____that pumps blood toward the lungs 2. contraction of the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood up into the pulmonary artery through the ___ and to the lungs. 1. AV (tricuspid) valve, right ventricle 2. pulmonary semilunar valve
1. oxygenated blood from the lungs travels via the ___ into he left atrium. 2. The systemic system carries oxygenated blood when the left atrium contracts forcing blood through the left ___ into the left ventricle. 3. Contraction of the left ventricle pumps blood through the aortic ___ through the __ towards the rest of the body. 1. pulmonary veins 2. AV (Bicuspid, mitral) 3. aortic semilunar valve, left ventricle
1. blood pressure is measured in 2. blood pressure is expressed as __ over ___ pressure. 3. normal/ average bp is 4. high blood pressure also known as _____ can cause rupture of the smaller arterioles and capillaries possibly leading to a stroke. 1. millimeters of mercury (mm hg) 2. max, min 3. 120/70 ati (120/80 real) 4. hypertension
1. _____ is a buildup of plaque in blood vessels that reduces the flow of blood through the vessel. 2. When a piece of plaque breaks off, it can travel to smaller vessels, causing a ___ 3. a piece of plaque or clotted blood traveling through vessels is known as an ___ 1. Atherosclerosis 2. blockage 3. embolus
1. a _____ occurs when the normal blood flow to the brain is stopped wither by a blockage or by a rupture of a blood vessel, causing death of brain tissue. 2. a ___ or _____, occurs when the flow of blood to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, causing cardiac muscle tissue to die 1. stroke 2. heart attack, myocardial
1. the gastrointestinal system is also referred to as the 2. in the GI tract glands perform both 3. Blood vessels in the GI tract absorb the digested 1. digestive system or alimentary canal 2. mechanical and chemical digestion 3. nutrients
1. the smooth muscle in the GI tract in under _____ control it involved in digestion and movement of food. 2. The digestive system function to break down ___ into small nutrient molecules that are then absorbed into the ___ system and distributed to the __ of the tissues throughout the body. 3. The digestive system also ___ and ___ undigested waste. 1. parasympathetic nervous 2. macromolecules, circulatory, cells 3. forms, elimates
The five main steps in digestion is 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. ingestion (intake of food) 2. digestion (mechanical and chemical breakdown) 3. movement (move food through Gi tract) 4. absorption (nutrients into tissue cells) 5. elimination (undigested waste)
1. Movement of the food through the GI tract through ___. 2. Food enters the system through the ___, where three pairs of salivary glands secrete ___ that contains ____. 3. ____ the oral cavity at the entry to the alimentary canal. 1. peristalsis 2. mouth, saliva, amylase 3. mouth
1. ___ the clear liquid found in the mouth, also known as spit 2. amylase is an __ that begins ___ digestion in the mouth. 3. The teeth being the mechanical breakdown of food by ____and mixing it with the __ and ____. 1. saliva 2. enzyme, carbohydrate 3. chewing, enzymes, saliva
1. chewing technical term is 2. The tongue forms a ___ and moves it towards the ___. 3. ___ a mass of food that has been chewed and swallowed 1. mastication 2. bolus, pharynx 3. bolus
1. The ___ is a cavity between the __ and the ___. 2. the pharynx provides a passageway for ___ and ___. 3. the __ is swallowed and the ___ closes off the opening to the __ so food only enter the ____. 1. pharynx, mouth, esophagus 2. food and air 3. bolus, epiglottis, trachea, esophagus.
1. the technical term for bolus is 2. the ____ is a long, muscular tube that carries food to the stomach by a wavelike ____ called ___. 3. When food reaches the distal portion of the esophagus, the ___ between the __ and the ____ relaxes to let food pass into the stomach. 1. deglutination 2. esophagus, involuntary smooth muscle contraction, peristalsis 3. sphincter, esophagus, stomach.
1. after food passes into the stomach the __ contracts, preventing ___ from backing up into the esophagus. 2. stomach acid backing up into the esophagus is a condition known as 3. The stomach has folds called ___ that increase the holding capacity of the stomach to about ___. 1. sphincter, stomach acid 2. gastric reflux 3. rugae, 1 liter
1. ___ the organ between the esophagus and small intestine in which the major portion of digestion occurs. 2. The mechanical mixing action of the stomach mixes the __ of food with __ to form partially digested liquid called _____. 3. __ the semifluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestine 1. stomach 2. boluses, gastric juices, chyme 3. chyme
1. Gastric juice is a mixture of __, __, and ___ secreted by the various __ of the stomach. 2. The chief cells secrete ___ and ____. 1. mucus, hydrochloric acid, digestive enzymes, cells 2. pepsinogen, enzyme gastric lipase
1. ____ an inactive form of pepsin used in protein 2. ___ which lipase digests fats 3. The ___ cells secret hydrochloric acid. 1. pepsinogen 2. enzyme gastric lipase 3. parietal
1. ____ converts the inactive pepsinogen to its active pepsin form 2. ___ cells in the gastric lining secrete mucous for protection against the highly acidic hydrogen chloride. 3. ___ secreted by the stomach also contribute to the process of digestion causing it to speed up. 1. hydrochloric acid 2. goblet 3. hormones
1. the hormone ____ acts to stimulate the secretion of the gastric juices. 2. The hormone ___ stimulates the appetite and promotes storage of fats. 1. gastrin 2. ghrelin
1. The stomach performs several functions it stores food ___, continues the processes of __ and ___ (enzymatic) digestion, and controls the movement of ___ into the duodenum of the small intestine. 2. The small intestine is approximately ____ in length and has a large surface area created by repeated ___ within its walls. Which enhances __ and ____. 1. boluses, mechanical and chemical, chyme 2. 18 feet, folds, digestion and absorption
1. The ____ is the short section attached to the pyloric sphincter of the stomach. 2. As chyme leaves the stomach, it is acted upon by enzymes from the __, ___ and ____. 3. The ___ produces alkaline bile secreted via the gall bladder to aid in the emulsification and breakdown of ___. 1. duodenum 2. liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. 3. liver, fats
1. The ___ secretes pancreatic juice, which is a mixture of __, ___, ____, and many digestive ____. pancreas, water, salts, bicarbonate, and enzymes.
1. The ____ neutralizes acidic chyme, and the ____ digestion of fats by __, starches by __ and proteins by __ are completed in he ____. bicarbonate, enzymatic, lipase, amylase, trypsin, duodenum
1. The pancreas secretes the hormones __ and __ for the control of blood glucose levels. insulin and glucagon
1. The pancreas also absorbs the nutrients including __ occurs in the multiple folds (___ and ___) of the _ and __ as the chyme is pushed through via ____. vitamin b12, villi and microvilli, jejunum, and ileum, peristalsis.
1. From the ___, blood carrying nutrients passes to the liver through the ___ portal duct, allowing the liver to metabolize consumed __ and store glucose as ___. small intestine, hepatic, toxins, glycogen
1. The chyme leaves the ___ and enters into the __. 2. The large intestine includes the __, __, __, and ___. 1. ileum, cecum 2. cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
1. The cecum has a projection known as the ___, which can play a role in the ____. 2. The colon is divided into four sections ___, ____, ____, and ____. 3. As undigested food (feces) travels through the colon, __ is absorbed. 1. appendix, immune system. 2.ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid. 3. water
1. ___ in the colon metabolize the fecal matter via ___ and produces vitamins, such as vitamin __ to be absorbed. 2. Fecal waste accumulates and is stored in the __ until it is ejected through the anus by defecation. 3. ___ the opening of the rectum from which solid waste is expelled. 1. bacteria, fermentation, k 2. rectum 3. anus
1. __ the last section of the large intestine ending with the anus 2. ___ comprised of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal, it is where vitamins and water are absorbed before feces is stored prior to elimination. 1. rectum 2. large intestine
1. The neuromuscular system incorporates the __ and the ___ system. 2. The coordination of the nervous and muscular systems controls and affects every part o the body in ____ functions and in the constant drive to maintain _____. 3. The function of the nervous system is to gather information from the __ and ___ environment and communicate any necessary changes to the muscular system. 1. nervous and muscular 2. daily life, homeostasis. 3. internal and external
1. The nervous and muscular system function together in part due to the unique features of their ____. 2. Communication is accomplished between the nervous and muscular system via ___ cells called ___ that pass information using an __ nerve impulse. 3. Information passes through hundreds of __ much like the game telephone until it reaches the final destination of the ___ for an action to be performed. 1. cells 2. distinctive, neurons, electrical 3. muscle
1. ___ Fibrous tissue that producaes force and motion to move the body or produce movement in parts of the body 2. ____ cells carry out their function via their distinguishing ability to ___. 1. muscle 2. muscle, contract
1. The nervous system is divided into the __ and the ___. 2. the Central nervous system (CNS) consist of the __ and ___. 3. The brain integrates sensory information received from the __ and __ environment and assembles a motor response. 1. central nervous system (CNS), and the Peripheral nervous system (PNS) 2. brain and spinal cord 3. internal and external
1. The spinal cord is similar to a multilane highway system that connects the ____ to the brain. 2. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consist of the extensive network of the __ and __ and __ or ___ information away from the brain and spinal cord. 3. The __ division is voluntary and controls the skeletal muscles of the body. 1. Peripheral nervous system. 2. spinal nerves, brain, motor, or efferent 3. somatic
1. The spinal nerves are like the many side roads and alleys that go to every part of our body outside of the ___. In this way the brain has access to everything that s going on in the body and can make decisions necessary to keep __ balance via __ reactions 2. Humans consciously control this system and can decide which muscles to contract or relax at any given time, allowing us to regulate when and how we move. This is called ___ 1. CNS, homeostatic, muscle 2. somatic
1. Once a stimulus is processed in the CNS, the peripheral motor nerves send efferent impulses to both the __ and __ division of the nervous system to carry out a response. 2. The ___ or ___ division is involuntary and controls the visceral or cardiac muscles of organ systems like the digestive and cardiovascular systems without our conscious planning. 1. somatic and autonomic 2. autonomic or visceral
1. Once we have chewed and swallowed using the ____ _____pathway of our neuromuscular system, we then turn control over to the ___ __ pathway for digestion. 2. The information gathered, processed, and passed to muscles travels as electrical impulses of the nervous system along specialized cells called ____ 1. somatic voluntary, autonomic involuntary 2. neurons
1. We do not need to plan or control ___ of food once its eaten, nor do we have to think about breathing or keeping our heart beating at the correct rate while __ is occurring. 2. The anatomy of a typical neuron includes a ___, the main part of the cell containing the nucleus and most organelles, and __that extend from the body. 1. digestion, digestion 2. cell body, nerve fibers
1. The nerve fibers are __ and ___. 2. An __ is a long singular tall-like extension which sends impulses from the neuron body to the branching axon terminal. 3. __ are receptor extensions that receive nerve impulses. 1. dendrites and axons 2. axon 3. dendrites
1. All nerve impulses travel in this __ direction. 2. all nerve impulses travel in this one-way direction: from __ to the ___ and then down the ____. 3. A stimulus is picked up at the ___ and sent through the cell body along the __ to the terminal branches. 1. one-way 2. dendrites, cell body, axon 3. dendrites, axon
1. Once the nerve impulse reaches the __ terminal, it stimulates the release of chemical neurotransmitters into a gap structure known as the ____ 2. The __ is the structure that allows neurons to pass signals on to other neurons, muscles, or glands. 3. __ neurons carry afferent impulses towards the CNA, and motor neurons carry efferent impulses from the CNS out to muscles. 1. axon, synapse 2. synapse 3. sensory
1. The neurotransmitters secreted into the ___ are picked up by the next cell causing the continuation or inhibition of the impulses. 2. __ are bundles of nerve fibers- axons and dendrites- and therefore contain both afferent and efferent impulses. 3. When an ___ axon terminal synapses with a muscle cell, stimulation of a muscle contraction can occur. 1. synapse 2. spinal nerves 3. efferent
1. __ are fibrous tissue with the unique ability to shorten or contract to move body parts and then to relax back to their original length. 2. While nerves are bundles of fibers, a muscle, like your bicep, consists of bundles of ___ or ____. 3. The muscle fibers in turn contain countless smaller ___ made of ___ units, each containing long strands of proteins called __ and ___. 1. Muscles 2. muscle fibers or cells 3. myofibrils, sarcomere, actin and myosin.
1. ____ are bundled in a similar fashion as nerves. 2. The myofibrils have two types of contractile protein filaments: the thinner __ and thicker ____. 3. These contractile protein filaments for muscles are arranged in overlapping ___. 1. Muscles 2. actin, myosin 3. bands
1. A ___ is the repeating contractile unit of a ___ muscle and is delineated by these bands of myosin and actin filaments. 2. ___ means contracting unit of a muscle 3. When the axon terminal secretes the chemical neurotransmitter at the ___ of a neuromuscular junction, it stimulates the muscle to contract. 1. sarcomere, skeletal muscle 2. sarcomere 3. synapse
1. ____ occurs when the thin actin filaments slide past the thicker myosin filaments, causing the sarcomere unit to shorten or contract. 2. The actin and myosin filaments in a muscle do not short themselves but shorten the length of the ___ by sliding past one another. 3. ___, the chemical energy of all cells, is used to cause the contraction and is also necessary for the ____ of the muscle. 1. contraction 2. sarcomere 3. ATP, relaxation
1. Many muscle fibers must contract in a unified pattern to cause a ____ for movement of a body part. 2. Each ___ supplies signals to several up to hundreds of muscle fibers. 3. In the ____ system, the fine motor control used in hand and eye muscles requires connections of __ to __ muscle fibers per neuron. 1. fluid muscle contraction 2. neuron 3. somatic, 3-6
1. For the more powerful contractions of muscles in the leg or arm, there can be connections of __ muscle fibers per neuron. 2. The ___ division of the neuromuscular system controls the contraction and relaxation of __ reflexes. 3. Disorders of the neuromuscular system can involve __ or __ the nervous and muscle systems. 1. 1,000 2. autonomic, visceral 3. either or both
1. the heartbeat, the mechanical propulsion and breakdown of food are examples of neuromuscular control by the ___ 2. __ response to nerve impulse can be affected by an injury to the muscle and/or its supporting ligaments and tendons. 3. a ___ comprises the stretching or tearing of the muscle and a sprain is an injury to the accompanying support ligaments and tendons of a muscle. 1. autonomic nervous system 2. muscle 3. muscle strain
1. the neuromuscular junction is compromised in a condition called ____ commonly known as ____ 2. In Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) also known as Lou Gehrug disease the ___ neurons degenerate and die, leading to loss of ___ muscle movement. 3. __ is a group of genetic disorders in which abnormal genes interfere with the production of ____ needed to form healthy muscles. 1. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Lou Gehrig disease 2. motor, voluntary 3. Muscular dystrophy, proteins
1. Whiles the nerves are not affected in muscular dystrophy, muscles progressively __ and weaken 2. Unlike ALS with muscular dystrophy both ___ and __ muscles are compromised. 3. ___ cells for ex are muscle, bone and skin. when new cells are needed they go through __ cellular division. 1. degenerate 2. voluntary and involuntary 3. body, mitotic.
1. sex cells are also called ___ 2. the uniting of the sperm and egg nuclei during fertilization recombines a full set of genetic material for the formation of a __ 3. testes are held in the scrotal sac called __ 1. gametes 2. zygote 3. scrotum
1. the sac holds the sperm outside of the body which helps regulate the __ necessary fr the sperm to mature 2. the sperm mature in the ____, which is a tightly coiled tube on the back of each testis. 3. during sexual arousal mature sperm are transported from the ___ through the duct system of the ___. From there they pass through the __ gland where the nutrients and lubricating fluids are added. 1. cooler temp. 2. epididymis 3. epididymis, vas deferens, prostate gland
1. At orgasm, semen is expelled from the urethra of the penis by the _____ contractions of ejaculation. 2. at the onset of puberty the pituitary gland secretes ___ and ___. 3. In a male the Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes the production of ___ and Luteinizing hormone (LH) controls the production of the ____ 1. rhythmic muscular 2. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone 3. sperm, testosterone
1. FSH promotes the appearance of __ in females. 2.periods are approx every ___ 3. the ___ in the ovary matures and releases an egg that then travels down the fallopian tubes to the uterus. 1. hair, mammary glands, and menstrual cycle. 2. 28 days 3. graafian follicle
1. ___ saclike structure that contains and allows for maturation of the female ovum (egg) within the ovary 2. The swell of the LH (Luteinizing hormone) causes ____, a rupturing of the egg from the follicle. 3. The corpus luteum secreted the hormone ___ 1. follicle 2. ovulation 3. progesterone
1. The main organ of the integumentary system is the ___ and is also the bodies largest organ. 2. The skin (integumentary) is made of three layers and is imbedded with accessory structures such as ___, __, and ___. 3. The three layers of the skin are ___, ___, and ____. 1. skin 2. glands, hair, nails 3. epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis.
1. The epidermis consists of ___ stratified __ epithelial tissue 2. __ migrate from the deeper region to the exterior surface of the __ as they age. during this time, they become more __, slough off, and are replaced by younger __. 1. keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue 2. cells, epidermis, flattened, cells
1. around ___, the tubes from which hair grows, the epidermis dips down into the middle layer called the ___. 2. The histology of the dermis is ___ tissue rather than epithelial tissue. 3. Typical of these two kinds of tissues, the epidermis is ___, while the dermis contains __ and ___. 1. hair follicles, dermis 2. connective 3. avascular, capillaries, and small blood vessels.
1. avascular means 2. Another name for the dermis is the ____ layer. 3. __ and ___ layer is used to refer to the deepest layer of the skin, 1. lack of blood vessels 2. cutaneous 3. hypodermis or subcutaneous
1. The two major types of hypodermis tissue are both of the ____: which are __ and ___ tissue. 2. Within the loose connective category the hypodermis is highly ___ and below the hypodermis is the ___ layer. 1. loose connective category, areolar and adipose 2. vascular, muscle
1. hair is generated by __ cells at the base of the hair follicles. Hair acquires oil from the ___ glands that surround hair follicles. 2. This oil is technically known as ___, and it moisturizes both hair and skin, keeping the __ flexible and water-resistant. 1. epithelial, sebaceous 2. sebum, keratin
1. Sebum is also produced by ___ glands, accessory structures only found in the dermis of the external ear canal. 2. Another gland in physical association with the hair follicle is the ___. 3. The secretion from the aprocrine sweat gland also referred to as ____ glands has an odor that may act as a sex pheromone in 1. ceruminous 2. apocrine sweat gland. 3. sweat
1. Sebum from ___ glands combines with dead epithelial cells to form cerumen, more commonly known as ear wax. 2. ___ sweat has a higher concentration of fatty acids than other sweat. As a result, when bacteria use ___ sweat components as nutrients they quickly change its odor to one of rancid ___ a body odor that is found disagreeable to most people. 1. ceruminous 2. Apocrine, apocrine, fatty acids
1. Sweat produced by ____ sweat glands ( also known as ___ sweat glands) has a different composition. 2. The main role of eccrine sweat is _____. Therefore, in contrast to apocrine sweat glands, eccrine sweat glands are found throughout the dermis of the human body. 1. eccrine, merocrine 2. thermoregulation
1. Unlike most other exocrine glands of the skin,_____ sweat glands deliver their secretions directly to the external surface of the ___. 2. The integumentary system uses two primary means for thermoregulation: __ and ___ 3. There are temperature sensors (thermoreceptors) in both the ___ and ___. 1. eccrine, epidermis 2. perspiration and diameter changes of blood vessels 3. hypothalamus and skin
the primary six functions of the integumentary system. 1. removes metabolic wastes, 2. synthesizes vit D, 3. communication 4. sensory tool 5. protection to body 6. main organ of temp regulation
1. The thermoreceptors in the skin provide information to the ___, which it uses to act as the body's thermostat. When the ___ perceives that body temp is too high, it stimulates ___. 2. The increase in blood vessel ___ in the skin allows more blood to flow near the surface of the body, so that body heat carried by the blood is transferred to the external environment. 1. hypothalamus, hypothalamus, cutaneous vasodilation 2. diameter
1. If ______ is not sufficient to lower body temp into a ____ range, the ____ stimulates ___ production. 2. As the perspiration on the surface of the skin dries, it lowers body temperature through ___ cooling. 3. Shivering is a response caused by the ___ when the body is below its ___ temperature. These fast alternating contractions of muscle occur below the skin. 1. cutaneous vasodilation, homeostatic, hypothalamus, sweat 2. evaporative 3. hypothalamus, homeostatic
1. Within the skin, ___ muscles tense with chilling temperature and cause hair to bristle. 2. The contraction of these cutaneous smooth muscles generate ___, which is trapped within the insulated airspace created when hair "stands on end". 3. The practical effect of ____ on heat generation and retention is minimal for humans compared to other mammals. A more effective means of retaining heat is triggered when the hypothalamus causes ___ in the skin. 1. arrector pili muscles 2. heat 3. arrector pili, vasoconstriction
1. _____ reduces the amount of blood traveling close to the surface of the body, thus decreasing heat loss through the skin, 2. the integumentary system is the external aspect of the ____. 3. Cerumen, hair, and mucus trap particles that can contain ____. When epidermal cells shed, potentially ____ microbes fall away from the body too. 1. cutaneous vasoconstriction 2. innate immune system 3. pathogens, pathogenic
1. The epidermal water barrier maintained by ____ and ___, a tough protein made by epithelial ____, helps to prevent the body from dehydration. 2. __ and ___ in sebum and sweat encourage a low PH that inhibits growth of bacteria. 1. sebum and keratin, keratinocytes, 2. lactic and fatty acids
1. sweat also contains ___ substances. 2. Another way that the integumentary protects the body is by serving as a large surface area for __ of waste material such as mineral __ and __. Lastly the skin shields deeper tissue from a portion of the harmful ___ from the sun. 1. antibacterial 2. excretion, salts, urea, ultraviolet radiation
1. In the skin, sensory receptors of the nervous system are activated in response to stimuli that is perceived as sensations, including __, __, and ___. 2. The ___ system is a set of organs that secretes hormones directly into the ___ system. 1. pressure, heat, and pain 2. endocrine, circulatory
1. The action of the endocrine system relies upon blood circulation to transport ___, chemical messengers secreted by ductless glands, to the cells and organs on which they have an effect (target sites). 2. ___ a polar, water-soluble hormone released by the adrenals in response to stress. Also known as adrenaline and there actions are short lived. 1. hormones 2. epinephrine
1. because blood flow is employed to transmit hormones from glad to target organ, it takes longer for a ___- releasing stimulus to cause a regulatory response than it takes the neurons of the nervous system to initiate a response. 2. the ___ is unique among organs in the body because it secretes both enzymes and hormones. 1. hormone 2. pancreas
1. However ___ remain in the blood stream after a neuron's signal has ended. 2. one endocrine role of the pancreas is to release __, a hormone that triggers the uptake of glucose into cells thus lowering blood glucose levels. 3. The same cells of the pancreas that secrete insulin also detect levels of ___. 1. hormones 2. insulin 3. glucose
1. ___ cells are able to adjust the amount of insulin they secrete in proportion to the amount of blood glucose they detect. ____ cells of the pancreas are also able to detect blood glucose levels. 2. ____ is a disease that results from a pancreatic hormone regulation malfunction. 3. The ____ is a location in the brain that is an integration center between the endocrine and nervous system. 1. Beta. Alpha 2. diabetes 3. hypothalamus
1. When glucose levels are too low, ___ cells secrete a different hormone, ____. This hormone stimulates its target cells in the liver to convert hepatic glycogen stores into __ and release that glucose into the blood. 2. Both kind of pancreatic cells (alpha and beta) producing each of these hormones regulate blood sugar amounts through ___. In other words, hormone secretion is stopped when a ____ level of blood glucose is detected. 1. alpha, glucagon, glucose 2. negative feedback, homeostatic
1. ____ pathologically high blood sugar levels. 2. The ____ produces releasing hormones that stimulate and inhibiting ___ that restrict the production of several hormones produced by the anterior __. 3. the anterior pituitary secretes growth ___. whose production by the anterior pituitary is stimulated or suppressed by specific releasing hormones or inhibiting hormones secreted by the ____. 1. diabetes 2. hypothalamus, hormones, pituitary 3. hormone, hypothalamus
1. Thyroid hormone's release from the thyroid gland is initiated by an anterior pituitary secretion called ___ (TSH). 2. The release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is triggered by the presence of ____ secreted by the hypothalamus. 1. thyroid stimulating hormone 2. thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH)
1. The presence of TH (thyroid hormone) in the bloodstream causes negative feedback inhibition on the release of both ___ (from the pituitary) and ____ from the hypothalamus. 2. A malfunction of the TH regulatory feedback loops leading to the overproduction of thyroid hormone is called ___. 3. ____ causes an increase in the secretion of a hormone, rather than cessation at a homeostatic set point or range. 1. TSH and TRH 2. hyperthyroidism 3. positive feedback
1. Follicle stimulating hormone FSH which is secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates development of __ in ovaries and __ in testes. 2. steroid hormones are made from 3. The thymus is a gland located behind the 1. eggs, sperm 2. cholesterol 3. manubrium
1. the _____ is a small grouping of usually four bean-shaped endocrine glands on the dorsal aspect of the thyroid gland. 2. The ___ secretes __ when plasma calcium levels are low (__). 3. the ___ plays a role in the regulation of plasma calcium levels. 1. parathyroid 2. parathyroid, PTH, hypocalcemia 3. parathyroid
1. Parathyroid hormone indirectly activates ___ causing the reorportion of calcium from bones. This hormone also works in the excretory system to increase plasma calcium levels by inhibiting the __ ability to transfer calcium ions to urine. 2. In addition to blood vessels that bring blood to and from the kidney, a system of __ allows for collection and re absorption of filtrate, the collection of urine from the kidneys, urine storage, and its excretion. 1. osteoclasts, kidney's 2. tubes
1. The functional units of the kidney are microscopic ___. The kidney is divided into 2 major regions: the __ and the ___. 2. within the renal cortex is the __ of the nephron. 3. all of the material leaving the blood through the walls of the glomerular capillaries is called the ____. 2. 1. nephrons, renal cortex, renal medulla. 2. glomerulus 3. filtrate
1. the ___ is a network of capillaries where blood pressure pushes water, salt, glucose, amino acids, and urea from the blood. 2. ___ is collected by the bowman's capsule, which surrounds the glomerulus. From the _____ capsule, filtrate moves into a highly convoluted tubule before dipping down into the level of the kidney's medulla. 1. glomerulus 2. filtrate, bowman's,
1. ___ a cup like structure that surrounds and collects filtrate from the glomerulus 2. ____ the first location where glucose and other useful solutes are reabsorbed back into the blood through the walls of surrounding capillaries. it connects the bowman's capsule to the loop of Henle. 1. bowman's capsule 2. proximal tubule
1. After the ___ dips down into the renal medulla, the remaining filtrate flows through the switch back bend of the loop of Henle, then continues back into the ___ through the distal tubule. 2. the loop of henle and distal tubule are also sites of ___, movement of useful material from filtrate back into the bloodstream. 3. During tubular re absorption, ___ pressure causes more than 80% of the water in filtrate to return to the blood plasma. 1. proximal tubule, cortex 2. tubular reabsorption 3. osmotic
1. water is reabsorbed from filtrate that has continued from the distal tubule into the _____. 2. In the renal __, distal ___ from numerous nephrons empty into each collecting duct. 3. As the collecting ducts transport the contained liquid on its second journey through the ___, the remaining filtrate has its final opportunity for water reabsorption. Here the filtrate becomes more concentrated as ___ 1. collecting duct. 2. cortex, tubules 3. medulla, urine
1. Collecting ducts join and empty their urine into the __ of the kidney. This is the center of the kidney, where urine collects before moving into the ___, the duct that will bring urine to the bladder. There is one ureter descending from each kidney. 2. The ___ is a hollow muscular organ that holds __ to __ ml of urine. 3. The urinary bladder contains sensors that communicate with the ___. When the bladder is full of urine, a signal from the ___ portion of the NS relaxes the internal sphincter. 1. renal pelvis, ureter, 2. urinary bladder, 400-800 3. central nervous system, autonomic,
1. a ___ controlled external sphincter in the urinary bladder opens during urination, allowing urine to flow into the ____. 2. The ___ carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. in males the urethra passes through the ___. Females have a much __ urethra. 3. The influence on fluid balance by the kidneys affects the __ volume in the cardiovascular system, resulting in changes in blood __ and ____ 1. voluntarily, urethra. 2. urethra, penis, shorter 3. blood, flow rate, blood pressure
the kidneys have three major functions and they are 1. filter metabolic waste from blood 2. regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in blood 3. blood volume in the cardiovascular system
1. Kidneys are primarily responsible for filtering blood coming from the ___ and leaving the kidney by way of the ___. 2. The organs of filtration (kidneys) also stabilize ___ in the body, 3. To accomplish both of these tasks, structures within the nephron control diffusion of particular ___ and ___ (movement of water). after the solutes and water have been collected from the glomerulus. 1. renal artery, renal vein 2. water balance 3. solutes and osmosis
1. The amount of filtrate collected into the Bowman's capsule is regulated be the blood pressure within the ___. The pressure is generally held constant regardless of changes in ____. 2. As the filtrate moves through the proximal tubule, loop of henle, distal tubule, and then the collection duct, reabsorption permits regulated amounts of certain useful __ and __ to reenter the blood. In the process, kidneys create __ urine. 1. glomerulus, systemic blood pressure. 2. solutes and water, waste-laden
1. waste removed from the blood by the kidneys includes excess __ and ___. Also excreted are cellular ___ and substances acquired from the environment that have the potential to poison the body. 2. Three metabolic byproducts of the kidneys that must be kept at low levels in the blood are ____ wastes: __, __, and ___. 3. Hormones, drugs, excess hydrogen ions and some toxins acquired from the environment are also removed from our blood by the ___. Then, they are eliminated from our body through ___. 1. electrolytes and water, byproducts, 2. nitrogenous, urea, uric acid, and creatinine 3. kidney, urination
1. This process is primarily influenced by the amount of __ in the blood. This solute enters the filtrate from the glomerulus, but returns to the blood, with the sodium ions leading the ___. 2. The amount of their reabsorption affects ____. consequently, the amount of water reabsorption is dependent on this ___. a common phrase for remembering this concept is ____. 1. sodium chloride (NaCl), chloride ions 2. osmotic pressure, osmotic pressure, where sodium goes, water follows.
1. Blood is the vehicle that carries ___ and ___ water to our kidneys. 2. Because ______ causes reduced blood volume, it lowers ______ as a result. Conversely if more than enough water is taken into body, ___ (and blood pressure) rises until mechanisms are engage to bring water levels closer to a ___ range. 1. ingested and metabolic 2. dehydration, blood pressure, blood volume, homeostatic
1. One such mechanism is for collecting ducts of the kidneys to lose their ability to permit __, causing urine to become more ___. 2. When blood pressure is out of the ____ range, and it is not caused by dehydration or over-hydration, kidneys are employed by the cardiovascular system to return __ to healthy levels. 3. If blood pressure drops, one way it can be returned to homeostasis is by increasing ___ through the reabsorption of water from ____ tubule filtrate. 1. water reabsorption, dilute 2. homeostatic, blood pressure 3. blood volume, renal
1. In the ____-___-____ system, low blood pressure causes an increase in water reabsorption along with other mechanisms that raise blood pressure. 2. ____ is an enzyme released by the kidneys when reduced blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the __ and __ arteries. 3. The lungs and kidneys produce an enzyme that converts angiotension l to ____. 1. renin-angiotensin-aldosterone 2. Renin, aorta and carotid 3. Angiotensin ll
1. renin creates _____ from angiotensinogen produced by the liver. 2. _____ acts to restore blood volume and blood pressure by constricting blood vessels, stimulating thirst, and stimulating production of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone. 3. Aldosterone leads to an increase in reabsorption of __ and ___. the other secretion stimulated by angiotensin ll and antidiuretic hormone. 1. angiotensin l 2. angiotensin ll 3. chloride ions and water
1. ____ any substance that causes water to be lost from the body through urination. 2. ____ is secreted by the pituitary gland, and it increases the amount of water able to be reabsorbed from the collecting duct. 3. The effects of ___ and ___ hormone are increase blood volume while decreasing water lost from the body in urine. 1. diuretic 2. antidiuretic hormone 3. aldosterone and antidiuretic
1. The immune system responds to substances on the surfaces of agents that the body perceives as foreign these substances are called _____. 2. ___ serve as identification badges that allow the immune system to detect agents that are genuinely dangerous to the body what are known as _____. 3. ____ are the immune systems response to foreign agents that are not pathogens. If the immune system mistakes part of the body as a pathogen, the resulting pathology is considered an _____. 1. antigens. 2. antigens, pathogens 3. allergies, autoimmune disease.
1. ___ an immune response to a foreign agent that is not a pathogen 2. ___ a pathology that results from the immune system mistaking part of the body as a pathogen 3. other incompatibilities generated by the immune system are responsible for __ and __ rejection. 1. allergies 2. autoimmune disease 3. organ and tissue
1. ___ a collection of nonspecific barriers and cellular responses that serve an inborn first and second line of defense against pathogens 2. ____ microscopic organisms that live in or on the human body without causing it harm 3. ___ a substance that kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms with minimal damage to the host 1. innate immune system 2. commensal microorganisms 3. antimicrobial
1. in case of laceration, bacteria and viruses entering through the cute will encounter specific kinds of white blood cells that ingest pathogens by ____. 2. One type of large phagocytic white blood cell is the ____ 3. After consuming the pathogen, the _____ is able to put parts of the ingested antigens on its cell membrane to alert patrolling ____ 1. phagocytosis 2. macrophage 3. macrophage, t cells
1. When a macrophage takes on this role, it is called an ___. ___ and __ can also function as APCs 2. another function of macrophages is to produce cell signaling molecules ___ that broadcasts the location of pathogens to other white blood cells. 3. Other cells of the innate immune system produce ___, which is a white blood cell secretion that triggers capillary permeability and vasodilation. 1. antigen-presenting cell, dendritic cells, b cells 2. cytokines 3. histamine
1. ____ cell signaling molecules released primarily by helper t cells and macrophages. certain cytokines activate cytotoxic t cells 2. The effects of histamine make it easier for more white blood cells to leak from ____ into the area in need of defense. 3. ___ is the resulting redness, swelling, heat, and pain in an area of defense by innate immunity. 1. cytokines 2. capillaries 3. inflammation
1. If the pathogens at the site are viruses, some types of white blood cells are able to secret ___ that inhibit virus replication. 2. if something is ___ it is inherent at birth 3. the body's third line of defense is the ___, a collection of cellular responses triggered by the internal presence of specific antigens. 1. interferons 2. innate 3. adaptive immune system
1. ____ develops specific defenses to particular antigens. Because each defense is unique, adaptive deals with perceived pathogens at a _____. 2. One the defense is created in adaptive immune system a ___ of that defense is able to trigger a fast response when the antigen is present again. 3. lymphocytes are a category of white blood cells that include ____, ___, ___, and what t cells become. 1. adaptive immune system, slower rate 2. cellular memory 3. natural killer cells, b-cells, and t-cells.
1. in the presence of an antigen, the mature t-cells become activated into ___, ___, and ___. 2. ____ secrete interleukins, chemical messengers that trigger the action of other cells. one of these actions is the attack of foreign cells by the ___ 3. T-cells that become ___ respond so quickly to an antigen upon re-exposure that the body is immune to developing symptoms from the associated pathogen the second time. 1. helper t-cells, cytotoxic t cells, and memory cells. 2. helper t-cells, cytotoxic t-cells 3. memory cells
1. These t-cells are involved in ____, a type of adaptive immunity in which ___ attack parasitic worms, cancer cells, transplanted tissues, or cells that contain pathogens. 2. one of the critical roles of helper t-cell is to activate ___, lymphocytes that mature in __ and make antibodies in response to antigens. 3. the b-cells multiply rapidly into cells called ___ that produce and secrete large amounts of an antibody against a specific antigen. 1. cell-mediated immunity, t lymphocytes 2. b-cells, bone marrow, 3. plasma cells
1. ___ also called ___ are blood proteins that have a variable region that fits a specific antigen. These antibodies tag pathogens for later destruction. This kind of adaptive immunity is called ____ also known as ____. 2. temporary ___ can be gained naturally through the ___ or __ or artificially by receiving a serum containing antibodies. 3. ___ is protection against a specific pathogen resulting from the body's production of antibodies in response to the presence of its ___. 1. antibodies, immunoglobulins, antibody-mediated immunity, humoral immunity 2. passive immunity, placenta or breast milk 3. activite immunity, antigens
1. ____ production can be caused by the body's immune response to an infection. a __ which is a solution of dead or weakened pathogens can also be introduced into the body for the purpose of stimulating antibody production against that pathogen. 2.____ hard calcified material that makes up the skeleton 3. ___ maintain bone and their thin cellular projections sense ___ on bone 1, antibody, vaccine, 2. bone 3. osteocytes, physical stresses
1. ___ performed by _____ removes calcium from bone so it can enter the blood stream. 2. ____ use calcium to communicate with each other and rely upon its presence in extracellular fluid for normal ___ inhibition 3. sufficient deficits in plasma calcium (___) causes tetany, an ___ and continuous contraction of skeletal muscle. 1. mineral resorption, osteoclasts 2. neurons, muscle contraction 3. hypocalcemia, involuntary
1. blood clotting and other vital metabolic reactions require ____ 2. ___ a disease that causes brittle fragile bones 3. ____ liberate calcium from bone-bound reserves. When too much calcium is depleted from bone, ___ results: bones porous of mineral that are weak and brittle. 1. calcium 2. osteoporosis, 3. osteoclasts, osteoporosis,
1. Osteoblast secretions allow ___ in bones, a process that is inhibited elsewhere in the body. This mineral deposition is in the form of ___ (a calcium phosphate salt) 2. ____ produce a highly organized _____ to which extracellular hydroxyapatite binds. 3. ___ tough flexible connective tissue found in parts of the body such as the ear. 1. mineralization, hydroxyapatite 2 osteoblasts, collagen matrix 3. collagen
1. ____ gives bone flexibility while the minerals that encrust those fibers give them strength. 2. another disease ____ also know as ____ the symptoms result from the genetically-based corruption of bones collagen matrix. 3. the ____ is organized into long concentric layers called ___, like the growth rings of a tree. 1. protein 2. brittle bone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta 3. mineral-laden collagen matrix, lamellae
1. Between each lamella are microscopic _____ or ___ where bone cells reside. 2. Cell communication between the ___ occurs through microscopic tunnels, ___ which transverse lamellae. 3. A grouping of concentric lamellae is called an __ and contains a central canal within its innermost ring. 1. pockets, lacunae 2. lacunae, canaliculi 3. osteon
1. The ____ (___) are passageways for nerves and blood vessels. The Haversian canals and their contents, running parallel within the center of each osteon, connect by way of perpendicular and oblique ___ (___) canals. 2. Compared to the ___ (___) bone that makes up the bone plates of the skull and the periphery of most other bones, ____ bone has few osteons. 3. The ___ bone contained within compact bone allows bone to be lighter and serves as a location for ___ to reside. 1. central Haversian canals, perforating (Volkmann's) canals 2. compact (dense), spongy 3. spongy, bone marrow
1. ___ is a site of blood formation and plays a role in the immune system 2. ___ present within the medullary cavity of adult long bones, is primarily composed of ___. 3. The longest long bone of the adult body is the ___, so it contains the largest amount of __ bone marrow and stores lipids. 1. red bone marrow 2. yellow bone marrow, adipose 3. femur, yellow
1. The components of the skeletal system provide ___, ___, and __ attachment points that facilitate motion. 2. ___ those that have a pronounced longitudinal axis, provide the mechanical advantages of levers where they articulate with other bones. 3. ____ a joint that allows for flexion and extension of the more distal bone along only one plane 1. leverage, articulations, soft tissue 2. long bones 3. hinge joint
1. __ is found in elbow and knee and allows flexion and extension of the more distal bone along only one plane. 2. The shoulders and hips are locations where ___ articulate with other bones in ___. 3. In addition, ball and socket joints allow for ___, ___, ___, and __ of the associated long bone 1. hinge joint 2. long bones, ball and socket joints 3. abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation
1. ___ are wrist, ankles, and patella, have a width similar to their height and articulate as gliding joints. 2. A third category of bones are ___ some such as the plates of the skull connect with each other at fused joints called ___. Bones that do not fit into short, long or flat bone shape categories are called ___ bones. 3.___ the primary structural protein of connective tissue 1. short bones 2. flat bones, sutures, irregular 3. cartilage
1. Articulation of the skeleton is made possible through its association with soft tissue ___, ___, ____, and the ____ that covers bones. 2. ___ tough connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone 3. ___ a tough connective tissue that attaches bone to bone 1. cartilage, tendons, ligaments, periosteum 2. tendons 3. ligaments
1. The ____ of the bone enveloping periosteum microscopically grip into bone and serve as a thin but strong attachment surface for ___ and __. 2. bone-joint interfaces are protected by a covering of ___. 3. Inflammation and pain of a joint in such a state is called ____ 1. fibers, tendons and ligaments 2. hyaline cartilage 3. osteoarthritis
1. A similar condition that also causes joint inflammation and pain is ____. However this is caused by an ___ reaction rather than wear and tear at the joint 2. ___ cartilage is also involved in the bone elongation that happens at the ___ (also called the ___). 3. An ___ line develops when the plate area stops producing cartilage. 1. rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune 2. hyaline, epiphyseal plate, growth plate 3. epiphyseal
1. ____ is the resulting short stature of individuals when the epiphyseal plate stops growing at a premature age. 2. The skeleton can be thought of as having two major divisions the __ and ___. 3. The ___ skeleton consists of a skull that shields the brain, a thoracic cage of ribs and sternum that shelters the heart and lungs, and a series of vertebrae in which the spinal cord resides 1. achondroplastic dwarfism 2. axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton 3. axial skeleton
1. The axial skeleton plays a major role in __ and ____. 2. in the skull, the mandible articulates with the temporal bone to allow for the motions of ___ (__) 3. sinuses inside the __, __, __, and __ bones are mucous membrane-lined cavities connecting with the nasal cavity 1. metabolism and movement 2. mastication (chewing) 3. frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary
1. The tiniest bones in the skull are the three ___ in the middle ears. 2. the ___ is a point of tongue and larynx attachment, and it is unique in being the only bone that is not connected to the rest of the skeleton. 3. The vertebral column is made of three groups of similarly shaped bones __, __, and ___. 1. auditory ossicles 2. hyoid bone 3. cervical, thoracic, and lumbar
1. on the cranial end of the vertebral column is __ also known as the ___. 2. The C1 or atlas is the rocker between __ and the ___ of the skull that allows for the __ motion of the head 3. there are __ cervical vertebrae 1. cervical C1, atlas. 2. C2 and occipital, yes 3. 7
1. C2 is also known as the ___ and it contains a vertical projection into it, a pivot that allows for the __ motion of the head. Between vertebrae are intervertebral discs made of ____. 2. the upper region of the ___ skeleton includes the pectoral girdle made of a right and left scapula and clavicles. 3. upper limbs consist of the __ and arm bones called the __ and __ that articulate with the __ of the wrist. Also the finger bones called 1. axis, no, cartilage 2. appendicular 3. humerus, radius and ulna, carpals, phalanges
1. The lower region of the skeleton includes the left and right hip bones of the pelvic girdle. lower limbs consist of the __ and the __, and __ that articulate with the __ of the foot. between them and the phalanges of the toes are the ___. 2. ___ is the portion of the skeleton made up of our appendages, the bones of our arms, legs, hands, and feet. 3. ___ is a protein kept in the kidney release is bad 1. femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, and metatarsals 2. appendicular skeleton 3. albumin
1. _____- normally found in urine 2. ____- normally found in urine (amount depends upon diet and amount of aldosterone) 3. ___ produces thyroid hormone and calcitonin 1. creatinine 2. sodium ions 3. thyroid
1. ____ releases hormones 2. ___ produces melatonin 3. ____- directed by the somatic nervous system 4. ____- are involuntary physiological Reponses often provoked by stress 1. hypothalamus 2. pineal 3. voluntary 4. sympathetic
1. ____- primitive brain structure that is involved in memory and emotion 2. ____- involves process of thought. 1. limbic 2. cognitive
1. _____- uppermost layer of skin, predominantly composed of dead keratinocytes 2. ____- contains a layer of keratinocytes filled with colorless protein eleidin, later converted to keratin 3. _____-thickest layer of skin containing keratinocytes, immune dendritic cells and sensory cells does not contain melanocytes 4.___- deepest layer of the epidermis and contains melanin-producing cells called melanocytes 1. stratum corneum 2. stratum lucidum 3. stratum spinosum 4.stratum basale
1. ___ found in hair and nails and on the outer layer of the skin cells called keratinocytes 2. ____-found in skin gives it the ability to rebound from being distorted 3. ____- when hemoglobin in red blood cells does not transport enough oxygen 4. ____-cancer of white blood cells 1. keratin 2. elastin 3. anemia 4. leukemia
1. ____-involved in ATP production do not synthesize proteins for secretion 2. ______- associated with ribosomes, which synthesize proteins. Therefore an abundance of rough endoplasmic reticulum allow for the production of protein for secretion 3. _____-iron containing and absorbs oxygen 1. Mitochondria 2. enough endoplasmic reticulum 3. hemoglobin
1. ____-oxygen-transporting pigment in muscle 2._____-released by the autonomic nervous system that causes skeletal muscles to contract 3. ______-local regulator however, its functions as a vasodilator rather than a muscle contraction 1. myoglobin 2. acetylcholine 3. nitric oxide
1. ____-biogenic amine of the central nervous system and typically involved with sleep, mood, attention, and learning. 2. ____-inhibitory neurotransmitter 3. _____ fluid found in joints 1. Dopamine 2. glycine 3. synovium
1. ____- joint between 2 bones 2. ____-air into lungs 3. ____-passing air through a liquid 1. suture 2. inspiration 3. aeration
1. ____-means breathing, bringing oxygen into the lungs 2. _____-adding more oxygen 3. ___-tissue covering the heart 1. ventilation or breathing 2. oxygenation 3. pericardium
1. ____-tissue covering bones 2. _____-cartilaginous joint between 2 bones 3. cover the lungs 1. periosteum 2. symphysis 3. pleura
1. ____-decreases mechanical stress that results in immobility can lead to demineralization (induces bone growth) 2. _____-process of transforming cartilage into bone tissue (increasing bone mass) 3. ____-curvature of the spine 1. demineralization 2. ossification 3. kyphosis
1. ____-bile production not storage 2. ____ secrets fluid to protect sperm in males) 3. ______- (sesamoid bones which develop in response to strain.) 1. liver 2. cowper 3. patellae
1. the nervous system sends signals to the ____ system to coordinate 2. air enters through the ___, moves into the ___, and travels past the ___, into the ___, 3. ___ are bathed in a layer or aqueous surfactant which is a substance that serves as the medium for gas exchange and keeps the lungs from collapsing. movement. 1. musculoskeletal 2. nasal opening, nasal cavity, pharynx (throat), trachea 3. alveoli
1. gas exchange in the lungs occurs by ____, which is a passive transport mechanism. 2. ____ inhalation of air 3. ___ expulsion of air 4. if blood ph starts to ___, the respiration rates will __ to balance carbon dioxide and oxygen levels. 1. diffusion 2. periodic inspiration 3. expiration 4. decrease, increase
1. the heart is made up of muscle tissues and is split into ____. 2. the upper chambers of the heart are called ___ and the lower chambers are called ___. 3. the heart has ____ valve control the flow of blood into and out of the chambers of the heart. 1. four chambers 2. atria, ventricles 3. on way
1. thick-walled arteries that transport blood ___ from the heart. 2. thinner-walled veins that transport blood __ the heart 3. capillaries made of a single layer of ___ that form a network that connects ___ to ___ in tissues. 1. away 2. to 3. endothelium, arteries, veins
1. the open lymphatic system __ and ___ interstitial fluid between cells and eventually __ into the circulatory system. 2. the ____ sends out electrical signals for the heart 3. white blood cells are divided into two main lineages: ___ and ___. 1. circulates and filters, drains. 2. sinoatrial node 3. leukocytes and lymphocytes.
1. the ____ capillaries drain interstitial fluid that fills the spaces between the cells and __ it through a system of lymph nodes that are enriched in _____ and provide surveillance by the immune system. 2. ____ is essentially plasma with the red blood cells removed 1. open circulatory system's, filter, lymphocytes, 2. lymph
1. Large numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes are enriched in the ____, where they monitor and respond to ___ washed into the system. 2. typically ____ are enriched in oral, nasal, and genital regions where foreign entities enter the body. 1. lymph nodes, foreign molecules 2. lymph nodes
1. ___ is the dilatation in the wall of an artery supplying blood to a specific area. it causes pain, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, rapid heart rate, low blood pressure and shock. 2. ___ is a condition characterized by abnormal heart rhythm. This may result in either too fast or slow heart beat. 3. ____ a disease caused by virus infecting the respiratory tract 1. aneurysm 2. arrhythmia 3. flu
1. blood flows throughout the cardiovascular system in a _____pattern. 2. blood flow starts at the ____ where oxygenated blood is pumped to the body. it then flows through ___ to ___. it transports oxygen to tissues and picks up ____. 1. cyclic 2. left ventricle, arteries to capillaries, carbon dioxide.
1. deoxygenated blood returns to the heart through ___. 2. deoxygenated blood enters through the __ and then flows into the ____. 3. when the right ventricle pumps the blood towards the lungs where it picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide. it then returns to the heart through the __ and starts the cycle again. 1. veins 2. right atrium, right ventricle. 3. left atrium
1. The GI tract begins with the ___ and then proceeds throughout the __ to the ___. 2. the GI tract function is to break down __ 3. blood vessels located along the ___ and __ and ___ absorb digested nutrients 4. undigested food is stored in the __ for elimination. 1. mouth, abdominal cavity, anus 2. food 3. stomach, small and large intestines 4. rectum
1. ___ in saliva lubricates the food 2. the ____ prevents reflux of food back into the esophagus. 3. the stomach is made up of ___ muscles. 1. mucus 2. gastric sphincter 3. smooth
1. the three main secretions of the stomach is __,___,____. 2. ___ and ___ in the small intestine absorb polar-digested nutrients into blood, lipids into lacteal as chylomicrons, and vitamin b12. 3. the ___ appendix projects from the cecum, which is located at the junction of the small and large intestines. 1. pepsinogen, mucus, hydrochloric acid 2. villi and microvilli 3. vermiform
1. the large intestine absorbs vitamin __ 2. ___ causes the sensation of satiety 3. ___ stimulates the breakdown of stored glycogen. 1. k 2. leptin 3. glucagon
1. ___ are proteins produced by the body that catalyze and speed up the breakdown of food so that nutrients are available for the body. 2. electrical impulses generate at the end of ____ cells. 3. nerve impulses travels along the __ and then is transmitted to the next cell using chemical ___ secreted into the synapse from the axon terminal. 1. enzymes 2. nerve 3. axon, neurotransmitters
1. sensory ___ nerves send messages to the central ___. 2. motor ___ nerves send messages to the ___. 3. ___ often attach to the bone and are involved in the movement of the bones 1. afferent, nervous system 2. efferent. muscles 3. skeletal muscles
1. smooth muscles can be found in the ___, ___, and ____. 2. fertilization normally occurs in the ____. 3. if a released egg is fertilized by a sperm, the egg may embed itself in the ___ (__). 1. stomach. blood vessels, and intestines 2. fallopian tubes 3. uterine wall, endometrium.
1. the ___ nourishes the fetus and removes wastes. 2. once the egg is released the now empty graafian follicle is now called the ____ and produces large amounts of ___ to prepare the endometrium for implantation of the fertilized egg. 1. placenta. 2. corpus luteum, progesterone
1. the skin has these three glands ____, ___, ____ 2. within the skin are these three things ___, ___, ____. 3. the top layer of the skin the epidermis is made up of ____ on the outside. it also has ____. 1. sebaceous, sudoriferous, and ceruminous 2. hair follicles, sweat glands, and blood vessels 3. dead cells, melanocytes.
1. the ____ provides a barrier between the body and outside pathogens such as bacteria. it also prevents the body from drying out. 2. the inner cells of the epidermis divide quickly, pushing ___ toward the surface. 3. these old cells die and create a ___, ___ outer surface. 1. epidermis 2. older cells 3. tough. waterproof
1. Melanocytes in the epidermis produce melanin, which helps to protect the body from ____ from the sun. 2. when the body becomes too warm ___ produce sweat 3. __ in the skin can also dilate when the body is warm. the dilated blood vessels carry more blood to the ____ and this can appear as flush cheeks. 1. radiation 2. sebaceous glands 3. blood vessels. skin surface
1. if the body is too cold, blood vessels ___ so that less blood is carried to the skin surface.. 2. without insulin ___ will not enter the cells. 3. high blood sugar levels can result in ___ resistance and ____ diabetes 1. constrict. 2. sugar 3. insulin, type ll
1. when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin the result is ____. 2. ___ is released by the pancreas when blood sugar levels drop. 3. ___ is broken down into glucose which raises blood sugar levels. 1. type l diabetes. 2. glucagon 3. glycogen
1. ___ regulates sleep cycles. 2. ___ based hormones can enter a cell and regulate DNA 3. when the adrenal glands secrete epinephrine into the bloodstream, heart rate, blood pressure, muscle strength, and metabolism increase. This is called the ___ response 1. melatonin 2. lipid 3. fight or flight
1. hormone ___ can cause metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and gigantism 2. in people with hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland releases too much ____. 3. gigantism occurs when the pituitary gland makes too much ____ hormone 1. imbalance 2. thyroxine 3. growth
1. the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra are all apart of the _____. 2. the ___ lie against the dorsal body wall above the waist, ___ to the lumbar region. 3. the outer layer of the kidney (cortex) also produces ___ a hormones that stimulates the production of new red blood cells. 1. genitourinary system 2. kidneys, superior 3. erythropoietin
1. the renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney where the concentration of ___ is regulated. 2. released urine is a waste product composed of ___ water, with urea, salts, and excess organic molecules. 3. the innate immune system has three lines of defense which are ___, ___, ____ 4. ____ are also sometimes used by the body to speed up the immune response. 1. urine 2. 95 3. skin, fights pathogens, adaptive immune system 4. fever
1. the adaptive immune system has two general responses to specific pathogens __ and ___. 2. a ____ response destroys the infected cell and a ___ response destroys pathogens found in the body fluids using antibodies secreted by b cells. 3. ___ immunity introduces antibodies from another source that can rapidly neutralize toxins ex: snakebite 1. cellular and humoral 2. cellular, humoral. 3. passive
1. ___ is caused by the hiv, which infects ___ t cells and prevents them from activating cytotoxic t cells and b cells and prevents the ____ system from operating. 2. the ___ system transports white blood cells throughout the body. 3. ____ also provide support and shape to the human body. 1. aids, helper, adaptive. 2. circulatory system 3. bones
1. ___ stores calcium, phosphate, and lipids 2. ____ bone marrow is found at the ends of long bones and is the site of ___ cell production. 3. the ends of long bones have ___ and this is where the bone lengthens if it is growing. 1. bones 2. red, blood 3. growth plates
1. ___ are places where bones meet other bones. 2. ____ joints such as pivot, ball-and-socket, and hinge are usually capable of movement 3. bone is synthesized in tubular structures called ___ which is composed of calcium and phosphate-rich hydroxyapatite embedded in a ____ matrix. 1. joints 2. synovial 3. osteons, collagen
1. osteons are also called ___ systems. 2. osteon includes the matrix that forms in a concentric ring and the osteocytes that are in a small ___ spaces in the matrix which are called ____. 3. ____ cells need to be supplied with oxygen and nutrients and need to communicate with other body systems. 1. haversian 2. cave-like, lacunae 3. bone
1. osteoblasts also develop into ___ 2. if osteoclasts break down bone faster than osteoblasts deposit minerals the bones become weakened and brittle this happens in _____. 3. the contracting muscle is called the ___ and the relaxed muscle in the pair is called the ____. 1. osteocytes 2. osteoporosis 3. prime mover, antagonist
1. a ___ is a substance with no medicinal effect that can be used as a control in an experiment. 2. ___ lymphocytes that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens. 3. ___ sugars and starches composed of monosaccharides 1. placebo 2. b cell 3. carbohydrates.
55.1 which of the following units is most appropriate for measuring the height of a giraffe? A. centimeters B. meters C. kilometers D. milimeters B
55.2 Which of the following units is appropriate for measuring the mass of a coin? A. grams B. meters C. kilograms D. kilometers A
55.3 which of the following can lead to the breakdown of glycogen? A. high levels of insulin B. high levels of glucose C. low levels of insulin D. low levels of glucose D
55.4 researchers conducted an experiment on the effects of a new antimold product. which of the following is the dependent variable that should be measured to establish an effect in this experiment? A. amount of antimold product B. amount of mold growth C. humidity D. temperature B
1. ____ processes that include growth, metabolism, replication, protein synthesis, regulation, and movement 2. ____ the muscle that pumps blood throughout the body 3. _____ long molecules made of nucleotides; Dna and RNA 1. cellular functions 2. heart 3. nucleic acids
1. ___ a specialized part of a cell that has a specific function such as producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) 2. ___ molecules composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds 3. under the dermis is called 1. organelle 2. proteins 3. subcutaneous
1. ___ the hormone that stimulates male secondary sexual characteristics 2. A _____ is a protein that provides structural support to a chromosome. In order for very long DNA molecules to fit into the cell nucleus, they wrap around complexes of ______ proteins, giving the chromosome a more compact shape 1. testosterone 2. histone, histone
1. The waxy oil that is secreted into the hair follicles is called the ____. This oil lubricates the skin and scalp of mammals 2. The _____ major muscle is a muscle that controls facial expression, drawing the mouth’s angle upward and outward. 1. sebum 2. zygomaticus
1. the facial region muscles are the ___ or ___ view 2. the occipitofrontalis muscle (front belly facial) function is? 3. the orbicularis oculi muscle (facial) function is? 1. anterior or oblique 2. raise eyebrows 3. close eye
1. the orbicularis oris muscle (facial) function is 2. the buccinator muscle (facial) function is? 3. the depressor anguli oris muscle (facial) function? 1. purses lips 2. compresses cheeks 3. depress corner of mouth
1. the facial muscles (facial) can also be 2. the masseter muscle (facial) function? 3. the temperoralis muscle (facial) function is 1. lateral 2. close jaw 3. elevates jaw, masticator
1. the neck muscles are 2. the omohyoid muscle (neck) function is 3. the sternohyoid muscle (neck) function is 1. anterior 2. depress hyoid & larynx and reestablishes breathing following the act of swallowing 3. depress hyoid & larynx, tounge movement and swallowing
the platysma sternocleidomastoid muscle (neck) action depress mandible, tense neck, unilaterally: laterally flex the head and neck to the same side rotate the head and neck to the opposite side bilaterally: flex the neck
1.the abdomen muscles are considered 2.the rectus abdominis muscle (abdomen 8 pack) function is 1. anterior 2. flexes vertebral column tilt pelvis posteriorly
1. the external oblique muscle (abdomen side) function is 2. the internal oblique muscle (abdomen both sides of belly button) function is unilaterally: laterally flex vertebral column to the same side rotate vertebral column to the opposite side bilaterally: flex the vertebral column compress abdominal contents 2. Unilaterally: laterally flex the vertebral column to the same side; Rotate the vertebral column to the same side Bilaterally: Flex the vertebral column; Compress the abdominal contents
1. the transversus abdominis (abdomen wrap around stomach to sides) muscle function is 2. the diaphragm muscle (abdomen lungs) function is 3. the shoulder girdle muscles can be 1. stabilize the lumbar spine and pelvis 2. breathing 3. posterior or anterior
the trapezius muscle (side of neck and back shoulders) function Upper fibers bilaterally: Extend the head and neck unilaterally: Laterally flex the head and neck to the same side Upwardly rotate the scapula Rotate the head and neck to the opposite side Elevate the scapula Middle fibers: Adduct the scapula Stabilize the scapula Lower fibers: Depress the scapula Upwardly rotate the scapula
. the serratus anterior muscle (sides under breast) function 1. Hold the medial border of the scapula against the rib cage Upwardly rotate the scapula Depress the scapula Abduct the scapula
the Rhomboid major/minor muscles (in-between shoulder blades) function Adduct scapula, Elevation scapula, Downward rotate the scapula
the Pectoralis minor muscles (side to arm (armpit) function? Depress scapula Abduct scapula Downwardly rotate scapula
1. the shoulder joint can be (view) 2. the Latissimus dorsi muscle (large triangle shaped muscle on back) functions? 1. posterior, anterior, lateral 2. medial rotation shoulder adduct shoulder, extend shoulder
1. the Teres major muscle (back side to armpit) function? 2. the *Teres minor muscle (front side to armpit) function helps latissimus dorsi by medial rotation shoulder adduction shoulder extension shoulder 2. lateral rotation shoulder, adduct the shoulder, stabilize the head of the humerus in glenoid cavity
1. the Supraspinatus muscle (top of shoulder) function 2. the Infraspinatus muscle (front of shoulder) function? 1. abduct shoulder stabilize the head of humerus in glenoid fossa 2. lateral rotation shoulder, adduct the shoulder and stabilize the head of the humerus
1. the Subscapularis muscle (front of shoulder) function 1.medial rotation shoulder stabilize the head of humerus in glenoid cavity
1. the pectoralis major muscle (pec or boob) function 2. the Coracobrachialis muscle (armpit to arm) function 1. medially rotate hip adduct hip 2. adducts the shoulder flex the shoulder
1. the Biceps brachii muscle (top of upper arm) function 2. the Triceps brachii muscle (bottom of upper arm) function 1.flex elbow supinate forearm, flex shoulder 2. all heads: extend the elbow, long head: adduct and extend shoulder
1. the Deltoid (shoulder muscle) function All fibers: Abduct the shoulder Anterior fibers: Flex the shoulder Medially rotate the shoulder Horizontally adduct the shoulder Posterior fibers: Horizontally abduct the shoulder (G/H joint) Extend the shoulder (G/H joint) Laterally rotate the shoulder (G/H joint)
1. the Brachialis muscle (above inner elbow below bicep) function 2. the Brachioradialis muscle (inner elbow thumb side to wrist) function 3. the wrist and hands are considered what view? 1. flex the elbow 2. flex the elbow 3. anterior or posterior
1. the Long Flexors muscle (hand and wrist) of the hand function are 2. the Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, Flexor carpi ulnaris is all apart of the 1. to flex and invert/ laterally flex the hand 2. flexes wrist (abduct or adduct depending on rad vs ulnaris
1. The extensor muscles (hand and wrist) function? 2. the Extensor carpi radialis long, Extensor digitorum, Extensor carpi ulnaris are all muscles of the 1. extension the fingers, hand, wrist 2. extend the wrist, fingers, abduct or adduct depending on uln vs rad
1. the hip joint can be seen in these views 2. the Iliopsoas muscle (inner hip/ leg joint to spine under ribcage) function (is tensor fasciae latae and iliotibial tract together) 1. anterior, medial, posterior, or lateral 2. flex the hip, medially rotate the hip, abduct the hip
1. the quadriceps femoris muscle (middle of upper thigh) function 2. rectus femoris action 1. extend the leg at the knee joint and flex the thigh at hip joint 2. flex the hip and extend the knee
1. the Sartorius muscle (long string muscle from side of knee to inner hip) function 2. gracilis muscle (inner thigh to knee) action 1. flex the hip laterally rotate the hip abduct the hip flex the knee medially rotate the flexed knee 2.Flex knee adduct the hip medially rotate hip medially rotate flexed knee
1. the Adductor longus (middle of femur bone to bottom of central hip) function 2.the Gluteus maximus muscle (butt) function (also one of the strongest muscles in the human body) 1. medially rotate the hip adduct the hip 2. Extend hip, laterally rotate hip, abduct hip Lower: adduct the hip
1. the Hamstrings (back of knee to butt) 2. the Semitendinosus muscle (outter thigh from knee to butt) function 1. flex knee joint and extend thigh backward to propel movement 2.flex the knee, medially rotate the flexed knee, extend the hip
1. the semimembranosus muscle ( inner thigh from knee to butt) function 2. the biceps femoris muscle (middle of back of leg from knee to butt) function 1. flex the knee medially rotate the flexed knee extend the hip 2. flex the knee laterally rotate the flexed knee (t/f joint) long head: extend the hip (coxal joint)
1. the Tensor fasciae latae muscle ( frontal hip muscle) function 2. the Gluteus medius muscle (side of hip/ to top of butt looks like a funnel) 1. stabilize pelvis on top of thigh when standing 2. All fibers: ABDUCT the hip. Anterior fibers: FLEX and MEDIALLY ROTATE the hip. Posterior fibers: EXTEND and LATERALLY ROTATE the hip.
1. the Vastus lateralis muscle (outter thigh from knee to hip) function 2. the vastus medialis muscle (inside thigh side of knee to right below hip) function 3. the Vastus intermedius (knee to upper thigh in the middle) function 1. extend the knee (chair, climbing stairs, cycling) 2. extend knee 3.extend knee
1. the Sartorius muscle ( wraps from inner knee to outer hip) 2. the Gracilis muscle ( the back of knee to the bottom of hip (inner thigh) function flex the hip laterally rotate the hip abduct the hip flex the knee medially rotate the flexed knee 2. Flex knee adduct the hip medially rotate hip medially rotate flexed knee
1. the Gastrocmenius muscle (back of calf) funciton 2. the ankle joint can be seen in these views 3. the Tibialis anterior muscle ( middle of top of calf) function 1. needed during running, fast walk or jump flex the knee plantar flex the ankle 2. anterior, lateral, posterior 3. invert the foot (toward big toe) dorsiflex the ankle
1. the Fibularis longus muscle (back of calf in middle) function 2. the Soleus muscle (outer/side of calf) 1. stabilize leg ontop of foot longest and brevis evert food 2. plantar flex, helps with running, walking, dancing
1. adduction is 2. abduction is 1. toward trunk 2. away from the trunk
. the dermis contains__,__,__,__ and __. collagen, blood vessels, glands, hair follicles, and nerve endings.
1. water, minerals, sodium, chloride,and magnesium are all excreted by glands in the 2. ___ contain trace amounts of urea, lactic acid, and alcohol 1. integumentary system 2. sweat
Created by: xokitty17xo
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