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VCOM Nutrition

test 3 block 1

QuestionAnswer
What vitamin is a coenzyme involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, alcohol, and some amino acids? Thiamin (B1)
A deficiency in what vitamin causes fatigue, weakness, nerve disorders, mental confusion, apathy, impaired growth, swelling, heart irregularity, and failure? Thiamin (B1)
What vitamin is a coenzyme involved in the energy metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats, as well as cell division, the promotion of growth and tissue repair, and the promotion of normal vision? Riboflavin (B2)
What vitamin has reddened lips, cracks at both corners of the mouth and fatigue listed as the symptoms of deficiency? Riboflavin (B2)
What vitamin is required for the growth and maintenance of nerve and muscle tissues and is required for normal appetite? Thiamin (B1)
What vitamin is involved in the synthesis of body fats and helps maintain normal nervous system fxns? Niacin (B3)
The dietary deficiency in what nutrient typically manifests as skin disorders along with diarrhea and indigestion? Niacin (B3)
What vitamin is involved in amino acid, glucose, and fatty acid metabolism, and neurotransmitter synthesis and is responsible for the conversion of trptophan to niacin? Vitamin B6
What vitamin deficiency presents itself in the form of convulsions, muscular weakness, dermatitis around the eyes, anemia, and kidney stones? Vitamin B6
What vitamin is required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine and serves as a methyl group donor in DNA synthesis? Folate
What deficiency presents itself as increased blood homocysteine levels and is also responsible for neural tube defects? Folate
What vitamin RDA is set at 400 mcg? Folate
What is the upper limit for folate intake? 1000 mcg
What vitamin is involved in the synthesis of DNA, RNA, and myelin? vitamin b12
What vitamin deficiency has pernicious anemia as its symptom? vitamin b12
What vitamin is required by enzymes involved in fat, protein, and glycogen metabolism? biotin
What dietary deficiency is characterized by nausea, hair loss, dry and scaly skin, and muscular pain? biotin
What vitamins have little to no danger from overdose? riboflavin, vitamin b12, biotin, panthothenic acid
What are some good food sources of thiamin? grains, pork and ham, liver, diary, dried beans and nuts
What group of people tend to be deficient in thiamin? alcoholics
What are some good sources of riboflavin? dairy, grains, liver, poultry, fish, beef, eggs
What vitamin lists flushing, headache, cramps, rapid heartbeat, nausea, diarrhea, and decreased liver fxn with doses above 0.5 g per day? Niacin
Much of our niacin intake comes from what amino acid? tryptophan
What vitamin lists bone pain, loss of feeling in fingers and toes, muscular weakness, numbness, andn loss of balance as overdose symptoms? Vitamin B6
What are some good sources of vitamin b6? grains, bananas, avocados, prunes, tomatoes, potatoes, chicken, liver, dried beans, meats, milk, green and leafy vegetables
Overdose of what vitamin may cover up signs of vitamin b12 deficiency? folate
What are some good sources of folate? fortified grains, dark green leafy vegetables, broccoli, brussels sprouts, oranges, bananas, grapefruit, dairy, beans
What are some good sources of vitamin b12? animal products, dairy, ready to eat cereals
What two groups of people are at risk for developing a vitamin b12 deficency? older people and vegans
What are some good sources of biotin? grains, meats, dried beans, cooked eggs, vegetables
How might a biotin deficiency be induced? through the overconsumption of raw eggs
What vitamin serves as a coenzyme involved in energy metabolism? pantothenic acid
What are some signs of pantothenic acid defiency? fatigue, sleep disturbances, numbness, impaired coordination, vomiting, nausea
What vitamin is required for collagen synthesis and acts as an antioxidant? vitamin C
What vitamin lists bleeding and bruising easily, slow recovery from infections, and poor wound healing as deficiency symptoms? vitamin C
What is the recommended dosage for vitamin C each day? women: 75 mgmen: 90 mg
What is the upper limit for vitamin C intake? 2000 mg
What vitamin is needed for the formation and maintenance of mucous membranes and for vision in dim light? Vitamin A
The deficiency of what vitamin can lead to impaired vision? Vitamin A
What is the RDA for vitamin A? women: 700 mcgmen: 900 mcg
What is considered the upper limit for vitamin A intake? 3000 mcg
What vitamin acts as an antioxidant and prevents damage to cell membranes by reparing damage caused by free radicals? Vitamin E
The deficiency of what vitamin can lead to muscle loss, nerve damage, anemia, and weakness? Vitamin E
What is the RDA for Vitamin E? women: 15 mgmen: 15 mg
What is considered the upper limit for vitamin E intake? 1000 mg
What vitamin is required for calcium and phosphorus metabolism in the intestines and bones? Vitamin D
What vitamin lists a loss of calcium from bones as a deficiency in adults? Vitamin D
What is the RDA for vitamin D? women: 5 mcgmen: 5 mcg
What is considered the upper limit for vitamin D intake? 50 mcg
What are some good sources of pantothentic acid? many foods, including meats, grains, vegetables, fruits, and milk
How common is a pantothenic acid deficiency? it is rare
An overdose of what vitamin can increase the risk for developing kidney stones? vitamin C
What are some good sources of vitamin C? fruits and vegetables
What group of individuals may need more vitamin C in their diet? smokers
What are some consequences of vitamin A overdose? nausea, irritability, blurred vision, weakness, liver damage, birth defects
What are some good sources of vitamin A? animal products, ready to eat cereals
Symptoms of vitamin A toxicity may mimic what two medical conditions? brain tumors and liver disease
What are some consequences of vitamin E toxicity? increase in bleeding and clotting time
What are some good sources of vitamin E? fatty foods, whole grains, leafy veggies
What fxn does vitamin E have in oils? It protects the fat from breakdown due to free radicals.
What are some symptoms of vitamin D toxicity? mental retardation in young children, abnormal bone growth, deposition of calcium in organs
What are some good sources of vitamin D? fortified products, butter, fish, eggs, mushrooms
Are yogurt, cheese, and icecream fortified with vitamin D? No
Is milk fortified with vitamin D? yes
How do you get vitamin D from sunlight? It is manufactered from cholesterol in the cells beneath the surface of the skin upon exposure to sunlight.
What vitamin is involved in the regulation of synthesis of blood clotting proteins and aids in the incorporation of calcium into bones? Vitamin K
What vitamin deficiency may be induced by the long-term use of antiobiotics, causing bleeding and bruising? Vitamin K
What mineral is a component of bones and teeth and is required for muscle and nerve activity? Calcium
what are some symptoms of calcium deficiency? osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, convulsions, muscle spasms
What are the AIs and UL for calcium? women: 1000 mgmen: 1000 mgUL: 2500 mg
What mineral is a component of certain enzymes and other substances involved in energy formation? phosphorus
What are some symptoms of phosphorus deficiency? loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weakness, confusion, loss of calcium from bones
What mineral is needed for nerve activity and activates enyzmes involved in energy and protein formation? magnesium
What are some symptoms of magnesium deficiency? stunted growth in children, weakness, muscle spasms, personality changes
What mineral transports oxygen as a component of hemoglobin in RBCs and is also a component of myoglobin? Iron
What are some symptoms of iron deficiency? weakness, fatigue, pale appearance, reduced attention span and resistance to infection, mental retardation and developmental delay in children
What is the RDA and UL for iron? women: 18 mgmen: 8 mgUL: 45 mg
What mineral is required for the activation of many enzymes involved in the reproduction of proteins and is a component of insulin? zinc
What are some symptoms of zinc deficiency? growth failure, delayed sexual maturation, slow wound healing, loss of taste and appetite, low-birth weight infants
What is the RDA and UL for zinc? women: 8 mgmen: 11 mgUL: 40 mg
What mineral is a component of tooth enamel? fluoride
What are some signs of fluoride deficiency? tooth decay and other dental diseases
What mineral is a component of thyroid hormones that helps regulate production and growth? Iodine
What are some symptoms of iodine deficiency? goiter, cretinism
What are some consequences of calcium overdose? drowsiness, calcium deposits in organs, decreased zinc absorption
What are some good sources of calcium? dairy products, broccoli, dried beans
What percentage of women in the U.S develop osteoporosis? 25%
What are some consequences of phosphorus overdose? muscle spasms
What are some good sources of phosphorus? meats, seeds, phosphates added to foods, dairy products
What phosphorus deficiency usually related to? disease processes
What are some symptoms of magnesium overdose? diarrhea, dehydration, impaired nerve activity due to disrupted utilization of calcium
What are some good sources of magnesium? plant foods, milk, bread, coffee
Do most Americans meet the RDA for magnesium? No
What are some consquences of iron overdose? hemochromoatosis, blue coloration of skin, liver and heart damage, vomiting, abdominal pain, diabetes, decreased zinc absorption, atherosclerosis
What are some food sources of iron? liver, beef, pork, dried beans, prunes, apricots, raisins, spinach, bread, pasta
What is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world? iron
What increases iron absorption? vitamin C, meat, alcohol
What are the consequences of zinc overdose? copper deficiency, metallic taste in mouth, increased blood lipids
What are some good sources of zinc? meats, grains, nuts, dairy products, bread
What type of zinc deficiency is common in children? marginal
What are some consequences of fluoride overdose? fluorosis, brittle bones, mottled teeth, nerve abnormalities
What are some good sources of fluoride? water, tea, shrimp, crab
What is one way that fluoride overdose can occur? ingestion of toothpaste
What are some symptoms of iodine overdose? pimples, goiter, decreased thyroid fxn
What are some sources of iodine? salt, milk products, seaweed, seafood, bread from commerical bakeries
Where does most of the iodine in our diet come from? the incidental addition of iodine to foods from cleaning compounds used by food manufacturers.
What mineral acts as an antioxidant in conjunction with vitamin E and is needed for thyroid hormone production? selenium
What are some consequences of selenium deficiency? anemia, muscle pain and tenderness, keshan disease (heart failure), joint disease
What mineral is a component of enzymes involved in the body's utilization of iron and oxygen and functions in growth, immunity, cholesterol and glucose utilization, and brain development? copper
What are some consequences of copper deficiency? seizures, nerve and bone abnormalities in children, growth retardation
What mineral is responsible for the formation of body fat and bone? manganese
What are some consequences of manganese deficiency? weight loss, rash, nausea and vomiting
What mineral is required for the normal utilization of glucose and fat? chromium
What are some signs of chromium deficiency? elevated blood glucose and triglyceride levels, weight loss
What mineral is a component of enzymes involved in the transfer of oxygen from one molecule to another? molybdenum
what are some signs of molybdenum deficiency? rapid heartbeat and breathing, coma
What mineral is responsible for the regulation of the acid-base balance in body fluids and the maintenance of the water balance in the body? sodium
What are some signs of sodium deficiency? weakness, apathy, poor appetite, muscle cramps, headache, swelling
What mineral has fxns similar to sodium? potassium
What are some symptoms of potassium deficiency? irregular heartbeat, paralysis, irritability, mental confusion
What mineral is a component of HCL and is also responsible for the acid-base balance of body fluids? chloride
What are some signs of chloride deficiency? long-term mental retardation in infants, poor appetite, apathy, muscle cramps
What are some consequences of selenium overdose? hair and fingernail loss, weakness, liver damage, irritability, garlic breath
What are some food sources of selenium? meats and seafoods, eggs, whole grains
Created by: bmensen