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after midterm

After the Midterm

Tunica intima Innermost layer. Endothelium
Tunica media Middle layer. Smooth muscle
Tunica adventitia Outermost fibreous layer. Connective tissue
Capiliary Microscopic blood vessels. Diffuse
Precapillary sphincter Smooth muscle that adjusts blood flow into capillaries
Sphincter Muscle hole
Arteries Carry blood away from the heart
Veins Carry blood towards the heart
Plasma Liquid matrix
Formed elements Cells and cell fragments
Red blood cells RBC's. Erythrocytes. Contain hemoglobin
Hemoglobin Oxygen transport. Protein.
White blood cells WBC's. Leukocytes. Recognize and destroy "invaders"
Platelets Cell fragments involved in clotting
Hemostasis The process of stopping bleeding
Hemostasis 1: vascular spasm Smooth muscle in the middle layer of a vessel contracts
Hemostasis 2: platelet plug Platelets stick to the damaged blood vessel walls. They release serotonin which causes a sustained contraction of vascular smooth muscle
Serotonin Causes sustained contraction of vascular smooth
Hemostasis 3: clot formation Plasma proteins remain in blood. Have temporary and permanent functions
Hepatocytes Form plasma proteins
Fibrin Temporary clot with fibrin and platelets.
Serum No blood cells nor clotting factors but all proteins and other substances not used in clotting. .
Hemophilia Defect in blood coagulation
Coagulation clotting
Hemorrhage Bleed
Thrombus Stationary fibrin clot
Embolus Travelling thrombus
Aneurysm Sac-like enlargement of a blood vessel caused by a weakening of its wall
Anemia Reduced amount of hemoglobin. Pallor
Cyanosis Bluish hue in skin, gums, nails
Lymphatic system function 1 Lipid transport
Lipids Fats
Lymphatic system function 2 Resistance to disease
Lymphatic system function 3 Empties excess interstitial fluid into the veins of the superior thorax (chest)
Edema Accumulation of excessive amount of interstitial fluid.
Cervical region Neck
Axillary region Armpit
Inguinal region Groin
Epicardium Outer layer of heart connective tissue (adventitia)
Myocardium Middle heart muscle layer
Myo- Muscle
Endocardium Inner layer of smooth endothelium that lines the heart
Atria Two receiving, superior chambers of the heart
Ventricles Two inferior, discharging chambers of the heart
Sinoatrial (S.A.) node Small mass of tissue in the right atrium. Functions as a pacemaker. Sets pace of the action potentials (electrical impulses) that initiate heart contractions
Gap junctions Allow action potentials to pass from one heart cell to another so heart cells contract in unison
Ectopic pacemaker Any other pacemaker than the sinoatrial node
Systole Contraction of the ventricles
Diastole Relaxation of the ventricles
HR 71 bpm
Tachycardia HR greater than 100 bpm
Bradycardia HR less than 60 bpm
Systemic circulation Left heart receives freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs via pulmonary vein and pumps it to cells via the aorta and systemic arteries
Aorta Carries blood to all other arteries
Systemic capillaries Oxygen to cells
Vena cavae Largest veins
Pulmonary circulation Right heart pumps unoxygenated blood via pulmonary arteries to the lungs where oxygen is picked up and brought to the left heart via pulmonary veins
Pulmonary arteries Takes unoxygenated blood to lungs
Pulmonary veins Oxygenated blood picked up at lungs taken to left heart
Coronary arteries Encircle heart. Feed myocardium during diastole
Shock Sudden drop of blood flow. Hypotension, Hyperventilation, cyanotic skin, oliguria
Hypotension Low blood pressure
Hyperventilation Over breathing
Cyanotic skin Bluish skin
Oliguria Decreased urine flow
Essential hypertension = Primary or Idiopathic Hypertension unknown cause
Baroreceptor Sensory nerve in carotid artery. Sensitive to stretching of carotid artery wall
Cardiac Arrest Failure of heart to pump blood. If persists for over 5 minutes can cause brain damage
Arrythmia most common is ventricular fribillation
Heart murmur Abnormal sound in heart valves
Atherosclerosis Clogging of arteries
Ischemia Loss of blood flow due to obstruction
Angina Pectoris Severe constricting pain in the chest (pectoris)
Angina Severe constricting pain
Necrosis Cell death
Ischemic necrosis Death of area of heart. Usually due to coronary artery
Infarction Necrosis caused by local lack of oxygen
Infarct Lesion caused by ischemia
Lesion Damaged area
Myocardial Infarction Death of some heart tissue = heart attack
Atrial Fibrillation = AF or A-FIB abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid irregular breathing
Fibrillation Vermicular twitching of muscle fibre
Defibrillation More successful if performed within 5 minutes of cardiac arrest
Created by: Casita



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