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Pre-Ad Anatomy 3

For quiz 3

Skin Cutaneous layer aka integument, integumentary system
Epidermis Outer, non-vascular, non-sensitive layer of the skin. 5 layers on thick skin. Epithelial tissue
Stratum corneum Outer layer of the epidermis consisting of several layers of flat keratinized cells among the stratified squamous epithelial cells
Keratin Tough insoluble protein. Main constituent of hair, nails, horn, hoofs, etc., and of the outermost layer of skin.
Stratum basale aka stratum germanitivum The deepest layer of the epidermis composed of dividing stem cells and anchoring cells
Stem cell A cell that upon division replaces its own numbers and also gives rise to cells that differentiate further into one of more specialized types
Melanocyte Cell that produces melanin
Melanin Insoluble dark pigment. accounts for dark skin, hair, fur, scales, feathers
Common mole Nevus. Growth that develops when melanocytes grow in clusters
Dermis Connective tissue layer deep to the epidermis; contains blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves, sensory receptors oil and sweat glands
Sebaceous glands Oil glands. Cutaneous glands that secrete sebum.
Sebum Lubricates hair and skin, prevents excessive water evaporation and inhibits the growth of certain bacteria.
Blackheads Caused by excess oils that have accumulated in the sebaceous gland's duct. Consist of keratin and modified sebum which darken as oxidizes
Acne areas of skin with seborrhea
Seborrhea Scaly red skin with blackheads, pimples and possible scarring. Acne affects mostly skin with the densest population of sebaceous follicles -- face upper chest and back. "orrhea" is flow in greek. "Flow of Sebum"
Boil Furuncle. Infection of the hair follicle. caused by bacteria and accumulation of pus and dead tissue
Carbuncle Cluster of boils
Goosebumps Contraction of the arrector pili muscles. Causing the follicular orifices to become prominent.
Neoplasm New, often uncontrolled abnormal mass of tissue; tumor
Oncology Branch of medical science dealing with cancer
Malignant Dangerous or harmful
Metastasis Appearance of neoplasms in parts of the body remote from the site of the primary tumor.
-oma Used to name forms of tumors
Basal cell carcinoma Most common, least dangerous; arises from basal cells of the epithelium
Melanoma Malignant growth of melanocytes skin tumors
ABCD Rule Nevius is Asymmetrical, has irregular Border, changes Color, has increased Diameter
CNS Central Nervous system. Brain and spinal cord. Link between brain and body
PNS Peripheral nervous system. Everything outside CNS. Carries information to CNS and instructions from CNS to effectors . Links the Body to the CNS
Effectors Muscles and glands
Neurons Nerve cells. Able to conduct electrical impulses aka action potentials. Functional units of the nervous system
Neuroglia aka glia A class of cells in the brain and spinal cord that support and protect neurons
Cell body Soma. The part of the neuron that contain organelles
Nerve fibre Axon. an extension of the neuron that carries signals away from its cell body, towards another neuron or effector
Dendrite An extension of the neuron that carries signals towards its cell body from another neuron
Nerve A bundle of axons in the PNS
Tract A bundle of nerve fibres in the CNS
Myelin White fatty material that insulates axons. MS=demylenating disease
Synapes Site of communication between two neurons.
Neurotransmitter Chemical that moves from one neuron to the next at the synapse.
Cerebral hemispheres Either of the rounded halves of the cerebrum. Each cerebral hemisphere has 4 lobes. TOPF
Frontal lobe Conscious movement of skeletal muscles, thinking
Parietal Lobe Touch, pain analysis
Occipital Lobe Visual analysis
Temporal Love Auditory, smell analysis
Stroke A sudden neurological affliction usually related to the impaired cerebral blood supply is called a stroke. Face Arm Speech Time.
Limbic system A group of structures in the brain that are associated with emotion memory and mood.
Spinal nerves 31 pairs of spinal nerves of the PNS carry info to and from the Spinal cord
Mixed nerve Carries info two and from the CNS
24 Articulating vertebrae Veretebral column usually consists of 24 articulating vertebrae and 9 fused vertebrae. 24 + 9=31 pairs of spinal nerves
9 Fused vertebrae of the sacrum and coccyx.
7 Cervical vertebrae
C1 Atlas
C2 Axis. Dens is nub
Somatic Nervous System SNS Motor neurons to skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System ANS Motor neurons to blood vessels, heart, smooth muscles, viscera and glands
Enteric Nervous System ENS Controls digestion. Can function independently of ANS and CNS
Sympathetic Nervous System Flight or flight
Parasympathetic Nervous System Resting and digesting eg decreases HR
Sphincters Circular muscles that contract
Vertabral Body Most anterior segment
Pedicules 2
Laminae 2
Spinous process (SP) Formed by the junction of the laminae
Transverse Process (TVP) Laterally projecting processes
Spinal Bifida The non fusion of the lamina (roof)
Thoracic vertebrae 12
Lumbar vertebrae 5
Cervical Vertebrae 7
Sacrum Bottom connects to coccyx
Coccyx Tailbone
Sensory Afferent neurons. Conduct impulses from the periphery of the body to the CNS
Motor Efferent neurons. Conduct impulses from the CNS to the effectors -- muscle or gland capable of responding to a stimulous
ANS has two divisions Sympathetic and parasympathetic.
Sympathetic Increases heart rate
Parasympathetic Decreases heart rate
Multiple Sclerosis Disease of CNS. Demylination, leaving multiple areas of scar tissue (sclerosis) along the covering of the nerve cells. Disrupts ability of axons to conduct electrical impulses
Etiologies Causes
Paraesthesia Tingling.
Ataxia Loss of coordination
Paresis Partial paralsysis, weakness
Vertigo Extreme dizziness
Emotional Lability Mood swings
Dysarthria Difficulty in articulation of speech
Cranial nerves 12 pairs connect to brain
Created by: Casita



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