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Pre-Ad Anatomy 2

For quiz 2

Endoskeleton Internal support structure. Bone and cartilage
Exoskeleton External skeleton
Bone Osseous tissue. A hard vascular connective tissue. Contains cells in a mineralized collagen matrix
Osteoblast A bone-forming cell
Osteoclast A phagocyte; removes osseous tissue to remodel bones and to release calcium needed by the nervous system and muscle
Phagocyte Cell that ingests foreign particles
Compact bone Dense bone that forms the external layer of all bones
Spongy bone Trabeculae and bone marrow
Trabeculae Rod-like bits of bone
Articulation Joint. Where two bones come together
Head of the femur The highest part of the thigh bone (femur). Supported by the femoral neck.
Acetabulum Hip bone's cup shaped socket
Viscosity The ability of a fluid to reduce friction
Articular cartilage Cartilage covering the articular surfaces of bones forming synovial joints
Synovial joint A joint containing synovial fluid
Synovial fluid A viscous fluid that lubricates the articular surfaces of a joint
Bursitis Inflammation of a bursa
Bursa A closed sac lined with synovial membrane and containing fluid
Itis Inflamation
Tendon A connective tissue that connects muscle to bone
Femur Thigh bone
Patella Kneecap
Supra- Above
Osteoarthritis "Wear and tear" arthritis. Characterized by erosion of articular cartilage
Arth- Joint
Osteoperosis A disorder in which bones become more porous, brittle and subject to fracture due to loss of calcium
Vertebrae Bones of the spinal column
Rheumatoid arthritis Inflammation and deformity of the joints. Autoimmune disease
Immune system Protective force, beats up bad guys but can get over zealous.
Pannus Abnormal tissue erodes articular cartilage and bone ends fuse
Ankylosis Fused joint (anky is Greek for "bent")
Muscle Is composed of elongated muscle cells (aka muscle fibres)
Muscle fibres Muscle fibre contraction (shortening) produces movement
Cardiac muscle Myocardium
Gap junctions Allow electrical currents to pass from one cell to another so that heart cells contract in unison.
Fibrillation Chaotic contractions across the heart
Defibrillator Sends a therapeutic dose of electric current through the heart to restore normal contractions
Smooth Muscle Found in the walls of the viscera. Regulates the flow of blood. Peristalsis. Generally not voluntary.
Viscera Hollow organs of the body except the heart
Skeletal muscle Striated and attached to the skeleton.
Endo- Within, inside
Endomysium Within the muscle. A thin layer of connective tissue that surrounds each individual muscle cell.
Ligament A connective tissues that connects bone to bone
Sprain An injury to a ligament. Ligament injuries involve a stretching or a tearing of this tissue
Strain Muscle or tendon
Sarcopenia Degenererative loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength associated with aging. Sarco means flesh (Sarcasm). Penia means poverity.
Fibromyalgia Fatigue and muscle pain and tender points. Can involve pain amplification. -algia = pain.
Endo- within, on the inside
Anatomical Position Head and palms facing forwards. DW
Distal Farther away from attachment of a limb
Proximal closer to the attachment of a limb
Mid-sagital plane Divides the body into left and right halves and is used as a reference for the following terms.
Lateral Farther from the midsagittal plane
Medial Closer to the midsagittal plane
Clavicle Collar bone
Scapula Shoulder bone
Humerus Thigh bone
Ulna Elbow side
Radius Thumb side
Carpals 8 proximal bones of hand that form two rows (4 bones each) proximal and distal
Metacarpals 5 long bones spanning the palm of the hand
Phalanges Finger digit/toe phalanx bones (3 per finger,/toe 2 on thumb/big toe, 14 total)
Coxal bones and sacrum (pelvis) Coaxal=hipbones. Fusion of ilium, ischium and pubis. Together with sacrum makes pelvis.
Tarsals 7 proximal bones of foot. Similar shape to carpal bones. Talus, calcaneus, cuboid, navicular, medial, middle and lateral cuneiforms.
Metatarsals 5. Correspond to phalanges of toes. #1 big toe metatarsal.
Tibia Main bone, medial and on big toe side (corresponds to radius)
Fibula Smaller bones, lateral and on little toes side (corresponds to ulna)
Phalanx Distal, middle and proximal. Big toe just has phalanges
Cuneiforms 3. Proximal to the phalanges and distal to the navicular
Navicular Medial to cuboid. "Little boat" =navicula
Calcaneus Heelbone in Latin. Calx=chalk
Talus Proximal bone of foot, closest to groin. from Taxillus die. Roman soldiers made dice from talus bones of horses
Dorsal surface of the foot. Dorsum Would be the bottom if we were on all fours. Ventral is front.
Plantar surface of the foot Bottom of the foot.
Dorsiflexion The upward movement of the foot
Inversion The sole of the foot faces inward
Supinated up
Pisiform Sesamoid. Locate by palpating the medial aspect of the most distal crease in the wrist for "bony resistance"
Tunnel of Guyon Allows passage of the ulnar artery and nerve into the hand. The space is medially bounded by the pisiform on the ulner side and the hook of the hamate on the radial side.
Ulnar nerve Runs along the ulna (funny bone". Ends between the 4th and ftfh fingers with a branch towards the thumb
Tibalis anterior Origin (PA) upper lateral surface of the tibia. Insertion (DA) 1rst cuneiform and proximal end of the 1rst metatarsal. Contraction = dorsiflection and inversion of foot.
Origin Proximal attachment (PA). Most muscles have a proximal origin and distal insertion (but not always)
Insertion Distal attachment (DA)
Concentric contraction Muscle shortens as it contracts. Used to accelerate and object or yourself
Proximal attachment fixed The proximal attachment is more stable than the distal attachment. Often but not always true
Sesamoids Bones that are completely contained within muscle tendons. On foot on distal end of first and fifth metatarsals
Distal attachment Insertion
Eccentric contraction (not bolded word) Contraction of a muscle during its lengthening. Muscle decelerates under tension. Eccentric to earth. "Loosing" vs the "winning" aka shortening aka concentric attraction
-ceps (head) If a muscle has more than one proximal attachment the attaching segments are called heads. Quads = five heads (rectus femoris has two heads)
Innominate bone Hip bone. Fusion of ilium, ischium and pubis = coxal bone
Quadriceps PA hip bone =innominate bone=coxal bone and femur. DA - Tibia. Rectus femoris (two heads), vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedus. Actions hip flexion and knee extension
-algia pain
peristalsis Contraction of smooth muscle
-epi on the outside, upon
Created by: Casita



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