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Pre-Ad Anatomy 1

For quiz 1

Zygote One Fertilized egg
Embryo The early stages of growth of a Zygote, to the 8th week of pregnancy
Fetus The term used from two months after conception to birth. Biologically no clear defining feature to distinguish embryo from fetus.
Cells The basic structural and functional units of the body. All cells can be grouped into 4 main types of tissues (Epithelium, Muscle Tissue, Nervous System and Connective Tissue). Happens after 200 cells
Tissues A group of similar cells
Organs More complex structures, consist of several tissue types (all four?)
Systems Organs that share a common purpose. eg Endocrine system
Endocrine System The system of glands, each of which secretes different types of hormones directly into the bloodstream to maintain homeostasis.
Homeostasis The tendency of a living organism to keep the conditions inside it (internal environment) the same despite any changes in the environment around it.
Hormones Substances released from endocrine glands into the bloodstream where they travel to target tissue and generate a response
Epithelium Provides a covering for most of the external surfaces of the body
Epi Prefix meaning above, on, over, nearby, upon; outer
Avascular Epithelium is avascular, without blood vescles
Epidermis The outermost layer of skin.
Stratified squamous epithelium Forms the outer layer of the epidermis.Stratified means layered and squamous means flat.
Muscle-Tissue/Muscle Fibre Muscle tissue has the ability to contract (shorten) and bring about movement in various parts of the body. A muscle cell is also called muscle fibre because it is long and thin.
Neurons (aka nerve cells). These are cells that conduct electrical signals These signals are also referred to as action potentials
Glial cells Provide structural and functional support for the neurons
Connective Tissue Compared to the other tissue types, all connective tissues have a relatively large amount of non-living intercellular substances called matrix
Matrix Non-living intercellular substances
Collagen A fibrous, insoluble protein that is an important part of the connective issue matrix and is produced by cells called fibroblasts
Fibroblasts Produce Collagen
Specialized types of connective tissue: Collagen, cartilage, bones and blood
Cartilage Is a connective tissue that is made up of chondrocytes and matrix.
Chondrocytes (Spell it). Cartilage cells
Blood Blood contains cells in a liquid matrix called plasma which is mostly water.
Plasma A liquid matrix in blood
Matrix Is non-living intercellular substances.
Connective tissue Has more matrix than other tissue types. More matrix than cells.
Collagen Is a fibrous, insoluble protein. Part of the connective tissue matrix. Produced by cells called fibroblasts.
Fibroblasts Produce collagen
Action Potentials Electrical Signals from nerve cells.
Endoskeleton Internal support structure. Bone and cartilage
Exoskeleton external skeleton
Bone Osseous tissue. A hard vascular connective tissue. cells in mineralized matrix whose collagen fibers are impregnated with calcium
Osteoblast a bone-forming cell
Osteoclast Phagocyte. Remobes calcium to rebuild
Phagocyte Cell that injests foreign particles
Created by: Casita