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A & P 1/ exam #1

Chapters 1-4

human body temp 98.6 degrees F or 37 degrees C range is 97 degrees F (36.1 C) to 99 degrees F (37.2 C)
The heart is housed in what cavity? Thoracic Cavity
What cavity houses the eyes? Cranial Cavity
What is negative feedback? controls most processes in the body controls homeostatic system will always be opposite direction of the stimulus fluctuation of the variable regulate blood glucose levels
What is positive feedback? stimulus is reinforced to continue in the same direction until a climactic event occurs also controls homeostatic system regulation of blood clotting
cytology the study of body cells and their internal structure
gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy) investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are visible to the unaided eye regional-all structures in one part of the body systemic-studied by system surface-internal structure as they relate to the overlying skin
embryology discipline concerned with developmental changes occurring from conception to birth
survival needs of the body nutrients-chemical substance used for energy and cell building oxygen-needed for metabolic reacFhing and gas exchange
What is an organ? is made up of different types of tissues
Functions of the nervous system composed of the brain, spinal and nerves fast acting control system of the body responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands
What is homeostasis?ly the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment internal environment/dynamic state to balance chemical, thermal, and neural factors interact-maintain homeost
anatomical position body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from the body
9 regions of the abdominal section R hypochondriac Epigastric L hydrochondriac R lumbar Umbilical L lumbar R iliac Hypogastric L iliac
parasagital planes any plane that divides the body into left and right portions, unequally but parallel to the median or sagittal plane
quadrants of the abdominopelvic RUQ LUQ RLQ LLQ
Characteristics of life (homeostasis) growth and development-get bigger, more complex metabolism-eat, breathe, excrete waste regulation-adjust internal bodily function in face of environment organization-made up of one or more cells responsiveness reproduction adaptation
Heirarchy of organism chemical-atoms combine to form molecules cellular-cells made up of molecules tissue-consist of similar cells organ-different types of tissues organ system-different types of organs organismal-organ systems
What is a phospholipid? class of lips that are a major component of all cell membranes head-hydrophilic tail-hydrophobic 2 fatty acids
Define diffusion to move from high to low concentration increase in heat is increase in rate decrease in size is increase in rate
What are microvilli? tiny projections that exist on, in, around cells occur in various structures and sites small intestine-allowing absorption
define plasma membrane microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that form the external boundary of the cytoplasm of a cell selectively permeable
hypertonic solution high concentration of solute
hypotonic solution low concentration of solute
isotonic solution even concentration of a solute
excretion process of eliminating or expelling waste matter in living organisms and cells
anterior front of ex: stomach is anterior to the spinal cord
posterior back of ex: heart is posterior to the sternum
dorsal back side of the human body
ventral belly side of the human body
superior closer to the head ex: chest is superior to the pelvis
inferior closer to the feet ex: stomach is inferior to the heart
cranial at the head end
caudal at the rear end or tail end
rostral towards the nose or mouth
medial toward the midline ex: lungs are medial to the shoulders
lateral away from the midline ex: arms are lateral to the heart
deep on the inside
superficial on the outside
proximal closer to the point of attachment ex: elbow is proximal to the hand
distal farther away from the point of attachment to the trunk ex: wrist is distal to elbow
ventral (anterior) body cavity thoracic cavity abdominopelvic cavity lined with serous membrane
serous membrane 2 layers/parietal and visceral layer that covers the external surface of the organs within the cavity
subdivisions of anatomy gross or macroscopic microscopic developmental regional systemic surface
triglycerides lipids refer to oils found in plants and animals compose of one of the major food groups
genetic info coded in DNA genetic code/set of rules by which info is encoded in genetic material (DNA and RNA) is translated into proteins by living cells genes that code are composed of tri-nucleotide units-codon
What is a protein? macromolecules composed of combination of 20 types of amino acids bond together with peptide bonds
collagen most abundant protein in the body 25-35 % in our body forms connective tissue found in fibrous tissue ex: tendons, ligaments, and skin
Where are carbohydrates stored? turns into glucose, body burns immediately or converts to glycogen to be stored in muscles and liver
What is a coenzyme? a non protein compound that is necessary for the functioning of an enzyme
translation uses info coded in RNA for the synthesis of protein by ribosomes in the cytosol
transcription formation of a RNA copy of a gene from DNA in the nucleus
What is Osmosis? is the passive movement of water through a semi permeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated and then equalizing the concentration on both sides
PH of blood normal blood PH is 7.35 through 7.45
What are nucleic acids? complex organic substance present in living cells, esp DNA or RNA consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain
What type of substance id blood? Plasma which is a liquid that carries red and white blood cells called platelets
phases of mitosis interphase prophase metaphase anaphase telophase
interphase time the cell prepares for cell division including synthesis of DNA which occurs during the S phase and duplication of centrioles
prophase 1st stage of mitosis chromosomes appear due to coiling of chromatin nucleolus breaks down spindle fibers begin to form from centrioles
metaphase 2nd stage of mitosis chromosomes aligned along a equatorial plate of the cell by spindle fibers spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes
anaphase 3rd stage of mitosis initiates as spindle fibers cause the sister chromatin to be moved apart each sister chromatid is now a chromosome with its own centromere cytokinesis begins
telophase chromosomes uncoil to form chromatin nucleolus reforms within each nucleus spindle fibers break up and disappear cytokinesis continues
What are microfilaments made of? made of actin protein organized into 2 thin intertwined protein filaments similar to 2 twisted pearl strands
atomic mass mass of both protons and neutrons
atomic number number protons
number of neutrons atomic mass - atomic number
isotopes atoms having the same number of proteins and electrons
radioisotopes unstable isotopes resulting from excess number of neutrons
covalent bonds 2 atoms in which both atoms have 4 to 7 electrons in the outer shell
electronegativity O-most N C H- not so much
major elements of the human body O, C,H,N
octet rule 2 electrons on the first shell and 8 max on each shell after
How is action potential generated? generated by special types of voltage-gated ion channels embedded in a cell's plasma membrane
What heavy metals are found in our bodies? Fe, Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca
What are the types of RNA? mRNA tRNA rRNA snRNA
mRNA messenger RNA encodes amino acid sequence of polypeptide
tRNA transfer RNA brings amino acids to ribosomes during translation
rRNA ribosomal RNA makes up the ribosomes, the organelles that translate mRNA
snRNA small nuclear RNA forms complexes that are used in RNA processing in eukaryotes ( not found in prokaryotes)
the bonding of RNA to DNA the sugar and phosphate groups form the backbone of a strand of RNA and the bases bond to each other RNA bases boned together in complimentary pairs
cellular respiration glycolysis citric acid cycle electron transport cycle
glycolysis is a metabolic process that occurs in the cytosol without the requirement of oxygen formation of ATP/2 ATP are "invested" early 4 ATP formed formation of NADH/2 NADH molecules are formed from glucose breakdown which occurs twice per the original
citric acid cycle or kreb cycle 9 enzymatic steps cyclic metabolic pathway that occurs through the activity of 9 enzymes located within the matrix of mitochondria
step 1 of kreb cycle acetyl CoA and OAA are bonded together to form citrate with a release of CoA citrate synthetase
steps 2 and 3 of kreb cycle forms an isomer by removing H2O from citrate and then reattaching to a different location on a molecule aconitase
step 4 of kreb cycle release of CO2 by decarboxylation transfer of 2 electrons plus hydrogen to NAD to form NADH isocitrate dehydrogenase
step 5 of kreb cycle same as 4 but add CoA ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
step 6 of kreb cycle removal of CoA and form ATP through substrate level phosphorylation succinyl CoA synthetase
step 7 of kreb cycle transfer of 2 Hydrogens to FAD to make FADH2 succinic dehydrogenase
step 8 of kreb cycle removal of water? add water? fumerase
step 9 of the kreb cycle catalyzed by dehydrogenase that transfers H to NAD to form NADH. OAA is regenerated in this final step malate dehyrogenase
Created by: vtlove116
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