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Exam 1: Ch 1-4

TermDefinition
Anatomy The study of the structure of the human body
Physiology The study of the function of the human body
Homeostasis Is the attempt to maintain a stable internal environment
Metabolism Is the sum total of all the chemical processes in the human body
Anabolism Is the portion of metabolism associated with taking in energy
Catabolism is the portion of metabolism associated with breaking down and releasing stored energy
Atom basic unit of matter
Molecules are formed when two or more unstable atoms join together
Macromolecules formed when small molecules combine together to form a larger molecule
Organelles are specialized structures, made of macromolecules, which carry out important functions within the cell of the human body
Cells are the basic units of life
Tissues are the same types of cells attached/working together
Organs are made of several different types of tissues/ are major supporting structures within the human body
Organ Systems are groups of related organs working together
Organism made up of all 11 organ systems working together
Integumentary System Major Organs: skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands Major Functions: protects tissues, regulates body temperature, support sensory receptors
Skeletal System bones, ligaments, cartilages provides framework, protects soft tissues, provides attachments for muscles, produces blood cells, stores inorganic salts
Muscular System muscles causes movement, maintains posture, produces body heat
Nervous System brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs detects changes, receive and interpret sensory information, stimulate muscles and glands
Endocrine System glands that secrete hormones (pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, tested, pineal and thymus) controls metabolic activities of body structures
Cardiovascular System heart, arteries, capillaries and veins move blood through blood vessels and transports substances throughout the body
Anatomical Position the term used to have a common way of visualizing the human body. standing erect, facing forward, arms fully extended and downward at the sides of the body, and with palms facing forwards.
Superior meaning a part is above another part
Inferior meaning a part is below another part
Anterior (ventral) meaning towards the front
Posterior (dorsal) meaning towards the back
Medial referring to an imaginary midline dividing the body into equal left and right halves
Lateral meaning towards the side, away from the midline
Bilateral refers to paired structures, one on each side
Ipsilateral refers to structures on the same side
Contralateral refers to structures on the opposite side
Proximal describes a part closer to a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part
Distal the opposite of proximal. It means a particular body part is farther away from a point of attachment to the trunk.
Superficial meaning near the surface
Deep describes more internal parts
Sagittal refers to the lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions
Median (Midsagittal) a sagittal section that passes through the midline and divides the body into equal parts
Parasagittal a sagittal section lateral (away from) to the midline
Transverse (horizontal) refers to a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions (top and bottom)
Frontal (coronal) refers to a section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions (front and back)
Abdominal
Acromial point of the shoulder
Antebrachial forearm
Antecubital anterior surface of the elbow
Axillary armpit
Brachial arm
Buccal cheek
Carpal wrist
Celiac abdomen
Cephalic head
Cervical neck
Costal ribs
Coxal hip
Crural leg
Cubital elbow
digital finger or toe
Dorsal back
Femoral thigh
Frontal forehead
Genital external reproductive organs
Gluteal buttocks
Groin depressed region of the abdominal wall near the thigh (inguinal)
Lumbar region of the lower back between ribs and pelvis (loin)
Mammary breast
Mental Chin
Nasal nose
Occipital inferior posterior region of the head
Oral mouth
Orbital eye cavity
Otic Ear
Palmar palm of the hand
Patellar anterior part of the knee
Pectoral anterior chest
Pedal foot
Pelvic pelvis
Perineal the inferior most region of the trunk between the thighs and the buttocks
Plantar sole of the foot
Popliteal area posterior to the knee
Sacral posterior region between the hip bones
Sternal middle of the thorax, anteriorly
Sural calf of the leg
Tarsal ankle
Umbilical navel
Vertebral spinal column
Abdominal region between the thorax and pelvis
Ventral Body Cavity body cavity towards the front
Dorsal Body Cavity body cavity towards the back
Protons
positively charged, locates in nucleus
Electrons negatively charged, located in the orbital path surrounding the nucleus
Neutrons neutrally charged, located in nucleus
Carbohydrates organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms
Lipids non polar molecules that are hydrophobic (water fearing) in nature. including fats, oils and waxes
Proteins organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
Nucleic Acids organic molecules that include both DNA and RNA
Nucleus regulates cellular metabolism and stores the majority of DNA within a cell
Flagella large whip like structures that are used to allow some cells to move independently
Cillia
numerous small hair like structures that are involved in movement
Created by: rolyatstrebor