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The Nervous System:

The Brain and Cranial Nerves A&P Chapter 10

WordDefinition
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain; composed of two cerebral hemispheres.
Cerebral Hemispheres The two divisions of the cerebrum split into left and right halves by the longitundial fissure.
Longitundial Fissure The deep groove in the cerebrum that splits the cerebrum into left and right cerebral hemispheres.
Diencephalon The area between the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem. It includes the thalamus and hypothalamus.
Brain Stem Connects the cerebrum and the diencephalon with the spinal cord. It contains the pons, the midbrain, and the medulla oblongata.
Midbrain The superior portion of the brainstem.
Pons Area of the brain between the midbrain and medulla oblongata; connects the cerebellum with the rest of the central nervous system.
Medulla Oblongata Part of the brainstem that connects the brain to the spinal cord through the foramen magnum.
Foramen Magnum Located at the base of the occipital bone, is a large opening through which the spinal cord communicates with the brain.
Cerebellum Located immediately below the posterior part of the cerebral hemispheres and is connected with the cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord by means of the pons.
Meninges The three layers of connective tissue that surround both the brain and the spinal cord to form a complete enclosure.
Dura Mater The outermost layer of the meninges, it is the toughest and thickest membrane. Around the brain it forms two layers, the outer layer is fused to the cranial bones. In certain places, these two layers separate to form the dural sinuses.
Dural Sinuses The venous channels in the dura mater, for the drainage of blood coming from the brain tissue.
Arachnoid Middle layer of the meninges, this membrane is loosely attached to the deepest of the meninges by weblike fibers, allowing space for the movement of CSF between the two membranes.
Pia Mater The innermost layer of the meninges around the brain. It is attached to the nervous tissue of the brain and spinal cord and follows all the contours of those structures.
Cerebrospinal Fluid A clear liquid that circulates in and around the brain and spinal cord.Its function is to support nervous tissue and to cusion shocks that would otherwise injure these delicate structures.
Arachnoid Villi Projections in the dural sinuses through which much of the cerebrospinal fluid returns to the blood.
Ventricles One of the four spaces in the brain within which cerebrospinal fluid is produced.
Choroid Plexus A vascular network in each ventricle that forms CSF by filtration of the blood and by cellular secretion.
Horns Name for the extensions of the lateral ventricles into the lobes of the cerebrum.
Interventricular Foramina The openings through which the lateral ventricles communicate with a midline space, the third ventricle.
Cerebral Aqueduct A small canal that continues down from the third ventricle and extends through the midbrain into the fourth ventricle.
Lobes Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named for the overlying cranial bones. They are the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and the lesser known division called the insula.
Insula The fifth lobe which is small and located deep within each hemisphere so that it cannot be seen from the surface. Not much is known about this lobe.
Cerebral Cortex Very thin outer layer of gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres. It is the most highly evolved portion of the brain and is responsible for conscious thought, reasoning,and abstract mental functions.
Gyri Raised areas of the cerebral cortex.
Gyrus Raised area of the cerebral cortex.
Sulci Shallow grooves, as between convolutions of the cerebral cortex.
Sulcus Shallow groove, as between convolutions of the cerebral cortex.
Central Sulcus Lie between the frontal and parietal lobes on each hemisphere at right angles to the longitundinal fissure.
Lateral Sulcus Curves along the side of each hemisphere and separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes.
Basal Nuclei Masses of gray matter located deep within each cerebal hemisphere. These groups of neurons work with the cerebral cortex to regulate body movement and the muscles of facial expression.
Basal Ganglia Another name for the masses of gray matter located deep within each cerebral hemisphere.
Dopamine Neurotransmitter secreted by the neurons of the basal nuclei.
Corpus Callosum An important band of white matter located at the bottom of the longitundinal fissure. This band is a bridge between the right and left hemispheres, permitting impusles to cross from one side of the brain to the other.
Internal Capsule A compact band of myelinated fibers that carries impulses between the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem. The vertical fibers that compose it travel between the thalamus and some of the basal nuclei on each side.
Memory The phenomenon in which the brain "stores" information much of which can be recalled on demand.
Frontal Lobe It is relatively larger in humans than in any other organism, lies anterior to the central sulcus. It also contains two areas important in speech.
Primary Motor Area Contained in the gyrus just anterior to the central sulcus in the frontal lobe. It provides conscious control of skeletal muscle.
Parietal Lobe Occupies the superior part of each hemisphere and lies posterior to the central sulcus. Contains the primary sensory area.
Primary Sensory Area Contained in the gyrus just behind the central sulcus in the parietal lobe, it interprets impulses from the skin, such as touch, pain, and temperature. The estimation of distances, sizes, and shapes also takes place here.
Temporal Lobe Lies inferior to the lateral sulcus and folds under the hemisphere on each side. Contains the auditory and olfactory areas.
Auditory Area Located in the temporal lobe it is the area that recieves and interprets impulses from the ear.
Olfactory Area Concerned with the sense of smell, it is located in the medial part of the temporal lobe; it is stimulated by impulses arising from receptors in the nose.
Occipital Lobe Lies posterior to the parietal lobe and extends over the cerebellum. Contains the visual recieving area dn the visual association area.
Visual Recieving Area Area of the occipital lobe that recieves impulses from the recieving cortex, which lies posterior to it, from the retina of the eye.
Visual Association Area Area of the occipital lobe that receives impulses from the retina of the eye and interprets these impulses as words.
Auditory Receiving Area Area located in the temporal lobe that detects sound impulses transmitted from the environment.
Auditory Association Area Area located in the temporal lobe that surrounds the auditory receiving area that interprets sounds.
Speech Comprehension Area Another region of the auditory cortex that functions in speech recognition and the meaning of words.
Wernicke Area Another name for the speech comprehension area.
Motor Areas Lies anterior to the most inferior part of th efrontal lobe's motor cortex, they are responsible for spoken and written communication.
Motor Speech Area Another name for the Broca area.
Broca Area Area of the cerebral cortex concerned with motor control of speech. A person who suffers damage to this area may have difficuty in producing speech.
Motor Aphasia Difficulty in producing speech.
Visual Areas Located in the occipital cortex they are also involved in communication. Visual images of language are received. The ability to read with understanding develops in this area.
Tactile Stimulus Stimulus received through touch.
Short-term Memory Refers to the retention of bits of information for a few seconds or perhaps a few minutes, after which the information is lost unless reinforced.
Long-term Memory Refers to the storage of information that can be recalled at a later time. There is a tendency for a memory to become fixed the more often a person repeats the remembered experience.
Fibrils Tiny extensions that form at synapses in the cerebral cortex, enabling impulses to travel more easily from one neuron to another. The number of these extensions increases with age.
Interbrain Another name for the diencephalon, located between the cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem.
Thalamus Its two parts form the lateral walls of the third ventricle. Nearly all sensory impulses travel through the masses of gray matter that form it. Its role is to sort out the impulses and direct them to particular areas of the cerebral cortex.
Hypothalamus Located in the midline area inferior to the thalamus and forms the floor of the third ventricle.
Limbic System A region along the border between the cerebrum and the diencephalon and is involved in emotional stress and behavior. It thus links the conscious functions of the cerebral cortex and the automatic functions of the brain stem.
Hippocampus Shaped like a seahorse; it is located under the lateral ventricles, which functions in learning and the formation of long-term memory. Includes regions that stimulate the reticular formation.
Reticular Formation A network that extends along the brain stem and governs wakefulness and sleep. Is stimulated by regions of the hippocampus.
Nuclei Collections of cell bodies (gray matter).
Respiratory Center Controls the muscles of respiration in response to chemical and other stimuli.
Cardiac Center Helps regulate the rate and force of the heartbeat.
Vasomotor Center Regulates the contraction of smooth muscles in the blood vessel walls and thus controls blood flow and blood pressure.
Decussate Motor fibers in which most of them cross from one of the cerebral hemispheres to the other while going through the medulla oblongata of the brain.
Contralateral Control The right cerebral hemisphere controls muscles in the left side of the body and the left cerebral hemisphere controls muscles in the right side of the body.
Computed Tomography (CT) It provides photographs of the bone, soft tissue, and cavaties of the brain. Anatomic lesions such as tumors or scar tissue accumulations are readily seen.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) It gives more views of the brain than CT and may reveal tumors, scar tissue, and hemorrhaging not shown by CT.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) It visualizes the brain in action.
Electroencephalograph (EEG) Instrument used to study the brain's electical activity. Is used to study sleep patterns, to diagnose disease, such as epilepsy, to locate tumors, to study the effects of drugs, and to determine brain death.
Electroencephalogram Record produced from an electroencephalograph.
Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges. It is caused by bacteria that enter through the ear, nose, or throat, or are carried by the blood.
Septicemia Blood infection.
Neisseria Meningitidis An organism, meningococcus is responsible for epidemics of meningitis among people living in close quarters.
Causative Bacteria for Meningitis Haemophilus influenzae (Hib)Streptococcus pneumoniaeEscherichia coli
Mumps Virus One virus that can cause meningitis, but usually produces a mild form of the disease that requires no treatment.
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain. Typical symptoms include fever, vomiting, and coma.
Hydrocephalus An abnormal accumulation of CSF within the brain. It may result either from overproduction or impaired drainage of the fluid. Treatment involveds a shunt to drain excess CSF from the brain
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) By far the most common kind of brain disorder. The most common cause is a blood clot that blocks flow to an area of brain tissue. Its effects depend ont he location of the artery and the extent of the involvement.
Stroke Another name for a CVA. It is most common among people older than 40 years of age and those with arterial wall damage, diabetes, or hypertension. Smoking and excess alcohol consumption also increase risk.
Cerebral Hemorrhage A spontaneous bleeding into the brain tissue, resulting from a stroke.
Aphasia One possible aftereffect of stroke or other brain injury is a loss or defect in language communication. The lesion that causes it in the right-handed person is likely to be in the left cerebral hemisphere.
Expressive Aphasia Difficulty or loss of the ability to speak or write.
Receptive Aphasia Difficulty or loss in the ability to understand written or spoken language.
Cerebral Palsy A disorder caused by brain damage occuring before or during the birth process. With muscle and speech training and other therapeutic approaches, children with this disease can be helped.
Epilepsy A chronic disorder involving an abnormality of the brain's electrical activity with or without apparent changes in nervous tissues. One manifestation of this disease is seizure activity.
Gliomas Brain tumors that originate from the neuroglia.
Brain Tumors May develop in people of any age but are somewhat more common in young and middle-aged adults than in other goups. Treatment is by surgery and radiation therapy.
Epidural Hematoma Damage to an artery from a skull fracture, usually on the side of the head, may result in bleeding between the dura mater and the skull.
Subdural Hematoma A tear in the wall of the dural sinus. This often results from a blow to the front or back of the head that separates the dura from the arachnoid, as occurs when the moving head hits a stationary object.
Cerebral Concussion Results from a blow to the head or from sudden movement of the brain against the skull, as in violent shaking.
Alzheimer Disease A brain disorder resulting from an unexplained degeneration of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.
Amyloid An abnormal protein produced in Alzheimer disease.
Calcium Channel Blockers Drugs used primarily to regulate the heartbeat.
Multi-infarct Dementia Represents the accumulation of brain damage resulting from chronic ischemia, such as would be cuased by a series of small strokes. People with this disease are troubled with progressive loss of memory, judgment, and cognitive function.
Ischemia Lack of blood supply to an area, usually from a clot.
Shaken Baby Syndrome Caused by violent shaking of an infant or toddler.
Second Impact Syndrome When a second head injury occurs before the first has fully healed.
Parkinson Disease A progressive neurologic condition characterized by tremors, rigidity of limbs and joints, slow movement, and impaired balance. The main therapy for this disease is administration of L-dopa. The average age of onset is 55 years.
Substantia Nigra Part of the brain that produces the neurotransmitter dopamine and is affected in Parkinson disease.
Parkinsonism Similar changes to Parkinson disease that may result from encephalitis or other brain diseases, exposure to certain toxins, or repeated head injury, as may occur in boxing.
Special Sensory Impulses Located in the special sense organs in the head, such as impulses for smell, taste, vision, and hearing.
General Sensory Impulses Such as those for pain, touch, temperature, deep muscle sense, pressure, and vibrations. These impulses come from receptors that are widely distributed throughout the body.
Somatic Motor Impulses Resulting in voluntary control of skeletal muscle.
Visceral Motor Impulses Producing involuntary control of glands and involuntary muscles. These motor pathways are part of the autonomic nervous system, parasympathetic division.
Mixed Nerve Contain both sensory and motor fibers.
Olfactory Nerve Carries smell impulses from receptors in the nasal muscosa to the brain.
Optic Nerve Carries visual impulses from the eye to the brain.
Oculomotor Nerve Is concerned with the contraction of most of the eye muscles.
Trochlear Nerve Supplies one eyeball muscle.
Trigeminal Nerve The great sensory nerve of the face and head. It has three branches that transport general sense impulses from the eye, upper jaw, and lower jaw.
Abducens Nerve Another nerve sending controlling impulses to an eyeball muscle.
Facial Nerve Largely motor. The muscle of facial expression are all supplied by branches of this nerve.
Vestibulocochlear Nerve Carries sensory impulses for hearing and equilibrium from the inner ear. This nerve was formerly called the audtiory or acoustic nerve.
Auditory Nerve Another name for the vestibulocochlear nerve.
Acoustic Nerve Another name for the nerve that carries sensory impulses for hearing and equilibrium.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve Contains general sensory fibers from the posterior tongue and the pharynx. This nerve also contians sensory fibers for taste from the posterior third of the tongue, secretory fibers that supply the largest salivary gland.
Parotid Largest of the salivary glands
Vagus Nerve The longest cranial nerve. It supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities. This nerve also contains motor fibers to the larynx and pharynx and to glands that produce digestive juices and other secretions.
Accessory Nerve A motor nerve with two branches. One branch controls two muscles of the neck, the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid; the other supplies muscles of the larynx.
Spinal Accessory Nerve Former name of the accessory nerve.
Hypoglossal Nerve The last of hte 12 cranial nerves, carries impulses controlling the tongue muscles.
Mnemonics Memory aids or devices.
Bell Palsy A facial paralysis caused by damage to the facial nerve, usually on one side of the face. This injury results in facial distortion because of one-sided paralysis of the muscles of facial expression.
Neuralgia In general means nerve pain.
Trigeminal Neuralgia A severe spasmodic pain affecting the fifth cranial nerve. At first, the pain comes at relatively long intervals, but as time goes on, intervals between episodes usually shorten while pain durations lengthen.
Tic Douloureux French meaning painful twitch. Has the same symptoms as trigeminal neuralgia.
Atherosclerosis Hardening of the arteries due to the deposit of yellowish, fatlike material in the lining of these vessels.
Cerebr/o Brain
Chori/o Membrane
Gyr/o Circle
Encephal/o Brain
Contra- Opposed, Against
Later/o Lateral, Side
Tom/o Cut
Cephal/o Head
-rhage Bursting Forth
Phasia Speech, Ability to Talk
Gloss/o Tongue
Cranial Nerve I Name: OlfactoryFunction: Carries impulses for the sense of smell toward the brain.
Cranial Nerve II Name: OpticFunction: Carries visual impulses from the eye to the brain.
Cranial Nerve III Name: OculomotorFunction: Controls contraction of eye muscles.
Cranial Nerve IV Name: TrochleaFunction: Supplies one eyeball muscle.
Cranial Nerve V Name: TrigeminalFunction: Carries sensory impulses from eye, upper jaw, and lower jaw toward the brain.
Cranial Nerve VI Name: AbducensFunction: Controls an eyeball muscle.
Cranial Nerve VII Name: FacialFunction: Controls muscles of facial expression; carries sensation of taste; stimulates small salivary glands and lacrimal gland.
Cranial Nerve VIII Name: VestibulocochlearFunction: Carries sensory impulses for hearing and equilibrium from the inner ear toward the brain.
Cranial Nerve IX Name: GlossopharyngealFunction: Carries sensory impulses from tongue and pharynx; controls swallowing muscles and stimulates the parotid salivary gland.
Cranial Nerve X Name: VagusFunction: Supplies most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities; carries motor impulses to the larynx and pharynx.
Cranial Nerve XI Name: AccessoryFunction: Controls muscles in the neck and larynx.
Cranial Nerve XII Name: HypoglossalFunction: Controls Muscles of the tongue.
Created by: Okiegirl