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Pharmacology

Test #3

Generic Drug Class/Theraputic EffectActionSide/Adverse Effects Contra/PT
Mannitol Osmotic Diuretic (ER Drug) Prevents Kidney Failure, decreases ICP & IOP Increases sodium re-absorption in proximal tubule & loop of henle Side: Fluid & Electrolyte imbalances, GI distress, Acidosis Adverse: Pulmonary Edema, tachycardia, Contra: Heart Disease, HF, pulmonary congestion PT: Huge U/O, change needle after pulling out the fluid in vial (can crystallize), Rapid fluid loss, Check I&O, Vitals
Hydrochlorothiazide Thiazide Diuretic (First Line for HTN) Therapeutic: HTN, Edema, HF, Distal convoluted renal tubule. D/H/C/N weakness, hypotension, skin rash, muscle cramps, photo-sensitivity Adverse: Blood dyscrasias, renal failure, OS hypotension, hyponatrimia Contra: Renal Failure, gout, diabetes, hyperparathyroidism PT: Take in AM, check BP before adm, wear sunglasses, foods with K
Prazosin Alpha Adrenergic Blocker Therapeutic: Vasodialation, decrease BP Blocks Alpha 1 adrenergic receptor- relaxes prostate gland/urethra- increases urine flow Side: H/D/N, nasal congestion, weight gain Adverse: OS Hypotension Contra: PT: Careful with diuretic meds & alcohol, BP will decrease, monitor weight
Nifedipine Calcium Channel Blocker Therapeutic: Hypertension and Angina/ decreases BP Slows calcium channels in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle cells promoting vasodialation Side: D/H, weakness, flushing, peripheral edema,nausea Adverse: Bradycardia, hypotension, palpitations, tachycardia Contra: Pts w/ low BP PT:
Propranolol Non-selective Beta Blocker Therapeutic: Inhibits beta 1 &2 receptors, propranolol, carvedilol Side: Hypotension, dizziness, fatigue, decrease glucose, insomnia, nightmares Adverse: Depression, sexual dysfunction Contra: PT: Do not abruptly stop taking can lead to rebound hypotension, Avoid OTC, herbals
Valsartan Angiotension II Receptor Blocker (ARBS) Therapeutic: Reduce BP Prevent release of aldosterone, blocks angiotensin II from angiotensive 1 receptors Side: H/D, hypotension Adverse: Renal Dysfunction, Hyperkalemia Contra: PT: cough is rare, more expensive drug
Metoprolol Cardiac Selective Beta Blocker Therapeutic: Controls angina, lung constriction, COPD, Asthma Side: Dizziness, fatigue, weakness, diysguesia decrease, insomnia, blurred vision Adverse: Depression, sexual dysfunction, Bradycardia, hypotension, stroke, DM, bronchospasm Contra: Heart block, cardiogenic shock, bradycardia PT: Do not stop abruptly, Avoid OCT, herbals
Lisinopril ACE-Inhibitor Therapeutic: Hypertension, AMI, HF Inhibits formation of Angiotensin II Side: Nonproductive cough, hyperkalemia, dizziness, N/V/D Adverse: Angioedema in deep layers of subq Contra: Renal Failure, pregnancy, potassium sparing diuretics, salt sub PT: African American & older pts dont respond to ACEI monotherapy, be careful with salt substitutes, cough will occur
Isoniazid Antitubercular Therapeutic: Active TB & as a prophylactic measures against TB inhibits beta-cell wall synthesis and MAO w/o affecting mitochondrial MAO Side: Drowsiness, tremors, rash, blurred vision, photosensitivity, tinnitus, D/N/V, diarrhea with oral solution Adverse: Psychotic behavior, peripheral neuropathy, vitB6 deficiency, hyperglycemia Blood dyscrasias, hepatotoxicity Contra: Severe Renal or hepatic Disease, alcoholism, diabetic retinopathy PT: 6-9 month therapy, single dose 2yrs, compliance, no food- 1hr before or 2 hrs after, avoid alcohol, take VitB6, CBC drop cell count
Rifampin Antitubercular (first line drug TB) Therapeutic: TB therapy Side: GI distress, N/V/D/H, confusion Adverse: thrombocytopnea, hepatotoxicity, ocular toxicity Contra: Severe hepatic disease, oral birth control, warfarin PT: take on empty stomach, if upset use applesauce or jelly, avoid sunlight, turns body fluids orange and contacts can turn color as well
Pseudoephedrine Adrenergic Agonist (systemic decongestant) Therapeutic: vasoconstriction rhinitis, common cold Dilation of nasal blood vessel Side: D/D/H, jitters, blureed vision, restlessness, insomnia Adverse: Palpitations, dysrhythmias, hypertension, tachycardia, Contra: cardiac disease, heart attacks, HTN PT: BP & glucose can increase, avoid large amounts of caffeine
Diphenhydramine Antihistamine (1st Gen) Therapeutic: Allergic rhinitis, common cold, cough, sneeze, urticaria, and to prevent motion sickness Competes with histamine for binding at H1 receptor sites and antagonizes histamine effects- blocks histamine receptor Side: drowsiness, dizziness, headache, asthenia, agitation, insomnia, urinary retension, blurred vision Adverse: Agranulocytosis, hemolytic edema, thrombocytopnea, Contra: acute asthma attack, severe liver disease, COPD Caution: narrow angle glaucoma, urinary retension PT: Dont use motor vehicles if drowzy, sleep 6-8 hrs (take at night), avoid MAOIs and alcohol, dry mouth
Oxymetazoline Decongestant Therapeutic: vasocontriction nasal congestion, decreases swelling that causes mucosal edema sympathomimetic dilation of nasal blood vessels Side: nervousness, restless, weakness, nausea Adverse: rebound nasal congestion if used for prolonged time Contra: Heart pts PT: can cause dry nasal mucosa and irritation, no more than 3 days, no more than 2 sprays a day, increased HR
Dextromethorphan Hydrobromine Anti-tussive Anti-cough Therapeutic: easy spelling secretions from the lower resp track and produce a productive less frequent cough reduce viscosity and adhesiveness of tenacious secretions (cough control in the medulla) Side: Dizziness, drowziness, confusion, fatigue, ataxia, GI distress, nervousness Adverse: Psychosis, nephronlithiasis, kidney stones, respiratory depression Contra: asthma, bronchitis, HF, tobacco, smoking PT: Drink plenty fluids, call persist call PCP, dont take whole bottle CNS problems can occur
Guaifenesin Expectorant (2nd Gen) Therapeutic: Cough, common cold thin & loosen bronchial secretions by reducing surface tension of secretions Side: N/V/D, drowsiness, headache irritability Adverse: Contra: PT: drink plenty fluids, wash hands, cough in sleeve, if cough continues after 5 days call PCP, observe color of secretions, take at bedtime
Fluticasone Glucocorticoid Intranasal Therapeutic: Anti-inflammatory (runny/stuffy nose), Allergic rhinitis, decrease rhinorrhea, sneezing, and congestion Side: Headache, nose bleed Adverse: none Contra: PT: no more than 3 days, rinse mouth to avoid thrush, seasonal, 2 sprays in each nare towards ear
Fluticason w/ Salmeterol Glucocorticoid (steroid) & beta 2 agonist Therapeutic: Asthema, COPD (long lasting) bronchiodialator effect N/V/headache, pharyngitis, euphoria, confusion, depression, sweating, musculoskeletal pain Adverse: Peptic Ulcer, loss of bone density, osteoporosis, psychosis, candida (thrush) Contra: PT: rinse mouth/throat after every use, take with food, can take 4 weeks for full effect, wont help asthma attack, take every day AM & PM to prevent bronchospasms
Tiotropium Anticholonergic (maintenance treatment) Therapeutic: maintanance for asthma and COPD blocks muscarine cholinergic receptors , antogonizes acetylcholine action by inhibiting M3 response receptor to actylcholine thereby relaxing smooth muscle of bronchi- dialates bronchi side: Insomnia, dizziness, depression, headache, sinusitis, anorexia, dry mouth, confusion, constipation Adverse: anaphylaxis, angioedema, dehydration, hyperglycemia, chest pain Contra: hypersensitivity, narrow angle glaucome, bladder obsruction PT: fluid intake, measure pulse, medical bracelet
Albuterol Beta 2 Adrenergic Agonist- Bronchodilator Therapeutic: asthma, acute bronchospasms, prophylaxis (short acting) Side: headaches, rhinitis, excitability, tremors, insomnia, dizziness, sweating Adverse: hypersensitivity, bronchospasm, palpitations, tachycardia, high glucose Contra: Heart problems/diabetes PT: Use as directed. PRN, every 3 hrs, monitor BP, P, EKG
Acetylcystine Mucolytic Therapeutic: bronchopulmonary disorders loosens this mucous secretions Side: N/V, stomatitis, oral ulcers, runny nose Adverse: Contra: moderate to severe liver dysfunction PT: dont mix with other drugs, if taken w/bronchodilator take 5 min before mucolytic, can be diluted in drinks, usually given in nebulizer
Montelukast Leukotriene Modifier Therapeutic: Asthma, prophylaxis of exercise induced bronchospasm (short half life- maintenance drug)) reduces inflammatory process and decreases bronchoconstriction Side: dizziness, headache, confusion, GI distress, depression, weakness, infection, Adverse: suicidal ideation, elevated liver enzymes, seizures, bleeding, angioedema Contra: hepatic disease, depression, older adults PT: no smoking, after opening package use within 15 min, no NSAIDs or aspirin
Levothyroxine Thyroid Replacement Therapeutic: hypothyroidism increases metabolic rate, oxygen consumption, utilization and mobilization of glycogen, promotes glucogenesis and body growth, protein synthesis Side: N/V/D anorexia, weight loss, nervousness Adverse: Tachycardia, hypertension, palpitations, Thyroid crisis, cardiac dysrythmias Contra: Thyrotoxicosis, MI PT: take drug at same time every day, and empty stomach, report any chest pain, palpitations, monitor vitals, weight, T3, t4, TSH
Proprythiouracil Antithyroid Therapeutic: Hyperthyroid- Graves disease makes it harder for the body to use iodine to make thyroid hormone Side: N/V fatigue, loss of appetite, skin rash, cough Adverse: Contra: PT:
Calcitriol Vitamin D Anologue Therapeutic: Parathyroid disorders- hypoparathyroidism enhances calcium deposits into bones, it reabsorbs calcium by the kidneys Side: N/V/D fatigue, weakness, solomnolence, cramp, Adverse: Hypercalcemia, anorexia, cardiac dysrthymias,hypertension Contra: Hypersensitivity, hypercalcemia, hypervitaminosis PT: use calcium supplements and foods
Prednisone Glucocorticoid Therapeutic: Adrenocortical insufficiency- addisons disease- autoimmune disorders suppress the immune responses, affects carbohydrates, protein, and fat metabolism Side: fluid & sodium retention, N/D/H, increased appitite Adverse: cardiac dysrhythmias, osteoporosis, fractures, cardiac arrest Contra: untreated infections, hypersensitivity, varicella PT: taper 1-2 weeks, gradually discontinue
Fludrocostisone Mineralcorticoid Therapeutic: Adrencorticoid insufficiency Facilitates sodium reabsorption, promotes hydrogen ion & potassium excretion, inflammation Side: Negative nitrogen balance, fluid imbalance, fluid overload, hypertension, hypokalemia, GI distress Adverse: Contra: PT: eat high K foods, monitor osteoporosis in older adults
Lispro Insulin Insulin (rapid acting) Therapeutic: controls diabetes mellitus to lower glucose promotes use of glucose by body cells Side: Confusion, agitation, tremors, headache, weakness, fatigue, weight gain Adverse: Tachycardia, palpitation, hypoglycemic reaction, Somogyi effect (hyperglycemia) Contra: Hypoglycemia PT: admin 5 min after pt has eaten, Onset: 15-30 min, Peak- 30-90min Duration: 3-5hrs Open vials can be stored in room 1 month/fridge 3 months
Regular Insulin Insulin (short acting) Therapeutic: controls diabetes mellitus to lower glucose promotes use of glucose by body cells Side: Confusion, agitation, tremors, headache, weakness, fatigue, weight gain Adverse: Tachycardia, palpitation, hypoglycemic reaction, Somogyi effect Contra: Hypoglycemia PT: admin 5 min after pt has eaten, Onset: 30 min Peak- 2.5-5hrs Duration:4-12hrs Open vials can be stored in room 1 month/fridge 3 months
NPH Insulin Insulin(intermediate acting) Therapeutic: controls diabetes mellitus to lower glucose promotes use of glucose by body cells Side: Confusion, agitation, tremors, headache, weakness, fatigue, weight gain Adverse: Tachycardia, palpitation, hypoglycemic reaction, Somogyi effect Contra: Hypoglycemia PT: admin 5 min after pt has eaten, Onset: 1-2hrs Peak- 4-12hrs Duration:14-24hrs Open vials can be stored in room 1 month/fridge 3 months
Glargine Insulin Insulin (Long Acting) Therapeutic: controls diabetes mellitus to lower glucose promotes use of glucose by body cells Side: Confusion, agitation, tremors, headache, weakness, fatigue, weight gain Adverse: Tachycardia, palpitation, hypoglycemic reaction, Somogyi effect Contra: Hypoglycemia PT: admin 5 min after pt has eaten, Onset: 1-1.5hrs Duration:24hrs (taken at bed time) Open vials can be stored in room 1 month/fridge 3 months
70/30 Insulin Insulin (NPH 70 & Regular 30) promotes use of glucose by body cells Side: Confusion, agitation, tremors, headache, weakness, fatigue, weight gain Adverse: Tachycardia, palpitation, hypoglycemic reaction, Somogyi effect Contra: Hypoglycemia PT: avaliable in vials & prefilled disposable pens- store room temp for up to 10 days
Exenatide Incretin Minnetic Therapeutic: managing type 2 diabetes (dont use for type 1) works on pancreas- Suppresses glucagon secretions, insulin secretion, slow gastric emptying, reduce food intake Side: headache, restlessness, GI distress, N/V/D, constipation, jitters, hypoglycemia Contra: Renal failure, GI disease PT: rotate injectable site x2 day, nutrition, compliance
Glipizide (2nd Gen) Sulfonamide Therapeutic: Controls Hyperglycemia in type 2 DM directly stimulates beta cells in the pancreas to secrete insulin Side: D/D/H, confusion, blurred vision, anxiety, flatulence, tremors, weight gain Adverse: Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, blood dyscrasias Contra: diabetic ketoacidosis, sulfonamide sensitivity PT: Take in AM, No green tea- hypoglycemia, no alcohol, compliance Onset: 90 min Peak: 2-3 hrs Duration: 12-24hrs
Metformin Biguanide Therapeutic: control hyperglycemia in type 2 DM works on glucose levels, does not stimulate pancrease Side: N/V/D, dizziness, headaches, flushing, metallic taste, hyperhidrosis, weakness, dyspepsia, flatulance Adverse: lactic acidosis, vit b12 deficiency, palpitations, hypoglycemia Contra: diabetic ketoacidosis, radiographic contrast admin PT: Green tea- hypoglycemia, bitter/metallic taste, stop meds before MRI/CT 24hrs prior
Glucagon Hyperglycemic hormone Therapeutic: Hypoglycemic increases blood glucose by stimulatin glycogenisis in the liver Side: increase blood sugar PT: family administers drug when pt is unconsious, works within 10 min
Furosemide Loop Diuretic Therapeutic: Pulmonary Edema/HF (more potent) Ascending loop of Henle- excretes Na, H20, K, Ca, Mg Side: D/N/C/H electrolyte imbalances, blurred vision, skin rash Adverse: Hypokalemia, hyponatrimia, alkalosis, hyperglycemia, hearing loss Contra: Sulfa allergies, severe electrolyte imbalance PT: take supplements rich in K, take in the morning, weigh daily- dont push too fast can cause hearing loss
Spironolactone (mild- choice for hear pt) Potassium Sparing Diuretic Therapeutic: Edema/HF, cirrhosis of liver blocks aldosterone promotes Na/H20 excretion and K retention Side: D/H/N weakness, elevated K, muscle cramps, hyperuricemia numbness and tingling in extremities Adverse: Hyperkalemia, blood dyscracias Contra: Renal Failure PT: Take w/food, avoid salt, high K foods, meds work in 48 hrs
Created by: 2083962701886579