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Apologia Human Body

Module 11

Blood is composed of 50% _________________. water
If your white blood cell count is high, you probably have an ___________________________. infection
The maximum number of oxygen molecules that can be carried by one hemoglobin molecule is __________. four
A blood cell is seen moving on it's own, so it must be a _________________________. leukocyte
A medicine with an antihistamine affects this type of cell. basophil
The three steps in the coagulation process produce these prothrombinase, thrombin, fibrin
Tissue or blood vessel damage produces this. prothrombinase
Prothrombinase converts prothrombin into this. thrombin
Thrombin converts fibrinogen into this. fibrin
Clean cuts do not promote _______________________ as well as jagged cuts do. vasoconstriction
vasoconstrictive stage first stage in hemostasis
platelet plug stage second stage in hemostasis
coagulation stage third stage in hemostasis
The release of this chemical stimulates several chemical processes that cause the platelets to stick together thromboxane
Some things are ____________ in the coagulation process, and some things are already in the bloodstream. made
Type O blood is called this because a person with any blood type can receive it without their body producing antibodies against it. universal donor type
If a person with O- blood donates blood, this blood type has no risk in receiving this blood. O-
If a person with O- blood donates blood, all other ___________________ have a low risk in receiving this blood. blood types
As a universal recipient, people with this type of blood can receive transfusions from any blood type with low risk. AB
To be a truly universal blood recipient, the blood must be this type, because Rh positive people do not produce the anti-Rh antibodies, and whether the blood donated is Rh positive or not will not matter. AB+
Blood from the ___________________ comes from the body tissues and is deoxygenated. right atrium
Blood from the _________________ comes from the lungs and is oxygenated. left atrium
Deoxygenated blood is moving away from the heart. What ventricle was the blood just in? right
Deoxygenated blood is moving away from the heart, and left the heart through the ________________________. pulmonary trunk
Blood is more __________dense than water. So, if you fill a balloon with blood and throw it in water, it will __________. dense, sink
The _______ of blood ranges from 7.35 to 7.45. pH
The pH of blood has to be tightly controlled because many of the ____________________________ which control the body work properly only in a narrow range of pH. chemical reactions
The two main components of blood are ______________ (55%) and ______________________ 45%) plasma, formed elements
50% of blood is _________________ water
__________________ is mostly water. It also contains proteins, ions, nutrients, gases, regulatory chemicals, and waste plasma
____________________ make up most of the blood's formed elements. There are also leukocytes and blood platelets. erythrocytes
____________________ carries oxygen in the blood. hemoglobin
What metal must be in the hemoglobin in order for it to work properly? iron
_______________________ have a short life span because mature ones have no nucleus, and cannot make the proteins that they need and can't repair damge or replace degenerated proteins red blood cells
granulocytes neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils
agranulocytes lymphocytes, monocytes
Fight infections by phagocytosis neutrophils, monocytes
Release histamine and heparin basophils
____________________ are anti-inflammatory eosinophils
___________________ produce antibodies lymphocytes
Blood cells are formed from ____________________ found in the bone marrow. stem cells
A ___________________ is the plug formed in platelet plug formation thrombus
Coagulation factors play a critical role in this stage of blood coagulation stage 1
If a blood coagulation factor is present, does this guarantee that coagulation is occurring? no
If an activated coagulation factor is present, does this guarantee that coagulation is occurring? yes, because factors are only activated during the coagulation process
Blood type ___________ is the universal donor, because it has no antigens at all. O-
Blood type ____________ is the universal recipient, because it has no antibodies and, regardless of the anti gens in the donor's blood, the recipient has no antibodies to attack the cells. AB+
A father has type A blood and a mother has type B blood. What types are possible for these parents' children? type A, type B, type AB or type O
A father and mother are both Rh positive. They have a child who is Rh negative. This can happen because each parent must have a Rh-negative ___________. Each parent donates a _______________ allele. allele, recessive
A person's blood pressure is 120 over 80. 120 is _____________ and 80 is __________________ systolic, diastolic
Systolic refers to ventricular _______________________. contraction
Diastolic refers to ventricular ______________________. relaxation
The ____________________ ____________ is a clump of cardiac tissue that generates action potentials which cause atrial contraction. sinoatrial node
The __________________ __________ is a clump of cardiac tissue that generates action potentials which cause ventricular contraction. atrioventricular node
The sinoatrial node is also called this. pacemaker
Blood pressure is lower in these types of blood vessels. veins
Viscosity The resistance to flow and alteration of shape due to cohesion
Plasma The fluid portion of blood, which is mostly water
Formed elements of blood The cells and cell parts of blood produced by the bone marrow
Erythrocytes Red blood cells which carry the oxygen in blood
Leukocytes White blood cells which perform various defensive functions in blood
Platelets Cell fragments in blood which help prevent blood loss
Diapedesis Passage of any formed element of blood
Chemotaxis Attraction of cells to chemical simuli
Hemopoiesis The process by which the formed elements of blood are made in the body
Hemostasis The process by which the body stops blood loss
Coagulation factors Proteins in blood plasma which help initiate the blood coagulation process
Antigen A protein or carbohydrate that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody
Arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Capillaries Tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and cells
Veins Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Pulmonary circulation Circulation of the blood over the air sacs of the lungs
Systemic circulation Circulation of the blood through the other tissues of the body
Systolic phase The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles contract
Diastolic phase The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles relax
Cardiac cycle One complete round of systole and diastole
Arterioles The smallest arteries that still have tunics
Venules Small veins that do not have three tunics but instead have only an endothelium, a basement membrane, and a few smooth muscle cells
Created by: q