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Art Final Exam

What is an example of an art subject matter? Landscapes, cityscapes, the figure, the portrait, still life
What is an art medium/media? Drawing, painting, collage, printmaking, sculpture, fibers
Line A path traced by a moving point
Shape General outline of an object, 2-D, can be geometric or organic
Form 3-D equivalent of shape, can be geometric or organic
Texture Roughness/smoothness of a surface, can be real or implied
Space Can be flat or show the illusion of depth or perspective, linear/atmospheric perspective
Color Hue, effect of the reflection of light on the back of the eye
Complementary Colors Opposite on the color wheel
Value Lightness/darkness of pencil tones/colors
Balance Distribution of visual weight in a work of art, symmetrical/asymmetrical
Unity Combines the principles of design and the physical aspects of a painting to create a single, harmonious artwork
Emphasis, focal point, center of interest The first thing your eye sees in a work of art
Contrast Differences in a work of art using art elements
Pattern Repetition of art elements
Rhythm Art elements are repeated to create movement in an artwork
Movement Directs the viewer's eyes to the center of interest, shows action
Characteristics of Hindu art Many gods are represented, Hinduism has dominated the art of India for 2500+ years
Characteristics of Buddhist art Emerged in 6th century B. C., inspired by the religion, influence of Buddhist art can be found in Japan, Buddha is represented in sculptures
Characteristics of Islamic art Human figure is rare - used in tales, Asia is dominated by Islam - has influenced Asian art
Taj Mahal Agra, India, example of Islamic inspired architecture
Trompe I'oeil A painting that's so realistic that the viewer may think it's real, French for "fool the eye"
Non-western art Art from any culture that's not related to people of North America/Western Europe
Characteristics of Japanese art Simplicity of form/design, attentiveness to beauty of nature and subtlety
Borobudor Buddhist temple with 10 levels, "cosmic mountain", one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world
Australian aboriginal x-ray art Depicts the inside and outside of the animal/figure in one image
Batik Coloring/dying process using wax stencil to protect design areas from colorization by dyeing of cloth/paper
3 Characteristics of Islamic architecture Towers for call to prayer, courtyard, dome
Alhambra Spain, palace
Blue Mosque Istanbul, Turkey, working mosque
Hagia Sophia Istanbul, Turkey, originally a church, converted to a mosque, today it's a museum/being restored
Mosaic Consists of pieces of colored marble/glass embedded in a layer of adhesive material
Fresco Method of painting, pigments are suspended in water and are applied to a thin layer of wet plaster so that it absorbs the color and the painting becomes part of the wall
Fetish Figure An object to which magical powers are ascribed, good luck charm
Oni of Ife King of Ife bronze sculpture
Machu Picchu "Lost city of the Incas", Peru
Serpent Mound Ohio, created by Native Americans, snake holding oval object in mouth
Cliff Dwellings of Mesa Verde Built by Anasazi, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, native American apartment houses
Maria Martinez Native American potter from New Mexico, known for black polished pottery
Caves at Lascaux 15,000 B. C., France, paintings of animals, closed to public in 1963
Venus of Willendorf 25,000 B. C., female fertility sculpture, Austria, made of limestone
Stonehenge 2,000 B. C., ritual site, Salisbury Plain, England, constructed for solstices/equinoxes, times for planting/harvesting/religious ceremonies, cromlech/lintels
Ziggurat at Ur Sumerian temple, Iraq
Great Pyramids Largest was built for Cheops, stones were cut so accurately that it's hard to find a place where a knife can be forced between two surfaces, guarded by the Great Sphinx
Imhotep First known artist name in history, architect for Step Pyramid of King Zoser
Palace at Knossos, Palace of Minos Crete, contains many rooms, running water, sewage system, theater, storerooms, terraces, and elaborately decorated quarters for rulers
Kouros Naked male sculpture in Greek art, archaic smile
Peplos Kore Clothed female sculpture in Greek art, archaic smile
Nike of Samothrae Greek sculpture representing "winged victory"
Amphora Greek vase used as storage jar
Colosseum Ancient Roman stadium
Parthenon Greek, acropolis in Athens, built for Athena
Pantheon Rome, built for gods, large dome
Mosaics of San Vitale Ravenna, Italy, tesserae pressed into wet plaster, Emperor Justinian/Empress Theodora with attendants, Christianity is appearing in art
St. Mark's church in Venice Largest and most lavishly decorated church of its time
Cathedral of St. Basil, Moscow Onion-shaped domes surrounding a central tent-like structure
Medieval Art, Middle Ages Spanned over 1,000 years (500-1,500 A. D.)
Manuscript Illumination Monks illustrated pages of scripture with animals, designs, and infinite detail
Lindisfarne Gospel Illustrated in Christianized Great Britain, volume of many vellum pages
Romanesque Architecture A style of architecture popular in the 11th and 12th centuries which uses rounded arches in windows/doorways
Bayeux Tapestry Embroidery depicting Normans defeating English in 1066 A. D.
Renaissance "Rebirth", intense artistic activity throughout Europe, fueled by renewed interest in ancient Romans/Greeks, science, and math
Medici Powerful family in Florence, great patrons of arts during Renaissance
Cathedral of Florence Brunelleschi, architectural/engineering wonder, two shells - linked with supports
Ghiberti Sculpted the doors of the baptistery of Florence, won against Brunelleschi, took 20 years to finish, bronze covered in gold, panels that illustrate New Testament
Donatello Florentine sculptor who used the contraposto (body in S-curve) of the Greeks to suggest action
David (Donatello) Unique, first life-size, freestanding nude statue since ancient times, represents David's victory over Goliath
Tribute Money Fresco, Peter paying tax collector, early example of linear/atmospheric perspective techniques
Fresco Painting on wet plaster
Linear Perspective Drawing/painting to give the illusion of depth on flat surface, lines receding into distance are drawn to imaginary vanishing points on horizon
Atmospheric/aerial Perspective Creating the illusion of distance by representing objects further away with less detail/colors
Fra Angelico Florentine master of landscape painting, Adoration of the Magi (tondo)
Tondo Painting round in shape
Birth of Venus Botticelli, scene based on traditional mythology, Venus rises from sea and emerges from shell
Dead Christ Mantegna, extreme foreshortening
Foreshortening A method of drawing/painting an object/person that's not parallel to the picture plane so that it seems to recede in space, giving illusion to 3-D, parts get smaller as they recede in space
Ghent Altarpiece Started by Eyck - finished by Jan (brother), triptych, Belgium, tells story of Adoration of the Lamb, oil paint, symbolism, prophets/kings of old testament are on left, apostles/saints on right, Adam/Eve on top side panel
Arnolfini Wedding Eyck, symbolism, signed
Portrait of a Lady Weyden, oil on panel, shows realistic fabric
Descent from the Cross Oil on panel, s-curve in Mary's and Christ's body
What were the two popular art forms in the Baroque period? Tapestry and embroidery (fiber arts)
Bosch Dutch painter, painted weird images/puzzling symbols
Garden of Delights Bosch, triptych, left panel: Garden of Eden with Adam and Eve, right panel: Garden of Satan, center panel: paradise
Tower of Babel Bruegel, story of Mesopotamia from Old Testament, reminiscent of the Roman Colosseum
Return of the Hunters One of a series depicting the seasons of the year, painted peasants in daily activities/special festivals
Durer Talented in woodcut/copper engraving, leader of the German High Renaissance, first artist outside Italy to become internationally acclaimed, first Northern artist to document himself in self-portraits, Knight, Death, and the Devil
Durer's self portrait Hair is treated as individual lines
Holbein One of the finest portrait painters of all time, court painter to Henry VIII, realistic painter
Sir Thomas More Holbein, no one has painted velvet/fur more convincingly than him
The French Ambassadors Holbein's greatest achievement, French Ambassador to England and friend on left, symbolism, skull appears at certain angle
Baroque Art 1600 A. D., Rome was center of art world, church remained all-powerful/patronized the arts over Italy, ornate, decorative, dynamic, extravagant and theatrical
Bernini One of the most influential Baroque artists
Ecstasy of Saint Theresa Captures Baroque spirit, event involving St. Theresa
David (Bernini) Marble, dramatic/energetic, in action
Caravaggio/Merisi First giant of Baroque, rebel, painter, placing religious figures in common early settings, churches refused to commission his work
The Supper at Emmaus Typical of Merisi's style, value contrasts, lit by single source of light, Easter Sunday evening - Christ appeared
Gentileschi Female artist, moved from Florence to Rome
Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes Centers around Judith surrendering to enemy, she cut off Holofernes' head causing army to retreat, single light source - deep shadows/lights
de la Tour French Baroque artist
Magdalen with the Smoking Flame Life of contemplation, oil on canvas, discovered and identified in 1972
Versailles Louis XIV built Versailles, first a symbol of the glory of the king, later a symbol of the excesses of the monarchy and helped bring the French Revolution, in today's money - it would've cost $10 billion
Leyster Holland Baroque artist, best-known female painter of 17th century, painter of everyday life
Self-portrait by Leyster Painting a violinist and both figures are cheerful
Lion Hunt Rubens, lions were rare/exotic in his time, used lions in private zoos for models, combined drawings from many subjects to put this together
Yonker Ramp and His Sweetheart Hals, friend at local tavern
Hals Enjoyed painting common people, successful portrait painter, died penniless in a poorhouse
Vermeer Thought to have used a camera obscura, Allegory of the Art of Painting, Girl with the Pearl Earring
Allegory of the Art of Painting Symbolism: model represents Clio, map of Holland represented it's the center of world art
Van Rijn Greatest of Dutch painters and one of the great geniuses of the art world, downhill when wife died, left paintings/etchings/drawings, painted many self/group portraits
Velazquez One of Spain's great artists of the Baroque period, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor)
Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) Velaquez, stands in front of canvas, princess with two ladies in waiting/dwarves/dog
Gainsborough One of England's finest portrait painters, landscapes, The Morning Walk
Copley American artist, lacked formal training
Paul Revere (painting) Shows the famous silversmith and patriot in a moment of concentration
Johnson First African American artist to gain prominence as an artist in America, self-taught, portrait painter of wealthy members of slave-holding families
Portrait of a Man Johnson, flat quality that was typical of the work of limners
Jacques-Louis David Painted under Louis XVI, embraced the Neoclassical style which arises from renewed interest in Classical ideas/design, Death of Marat
Napoleon in His Study David, pose that became a model for official portraits in Western art and his trademark: hand-in-his-vest
Neoclassical architecture Replaced the overworked surfaces of Baroque and Rococo palaces and churches with classic simplicity and balance (ex: U. S. Capitol)
Romanticism A rebellion from Classic restrictions of form and proportion in the Neoclassical style, artists expressed feelings/emotions
Goya Spanish artist, deaf, isolated man, genius of Romantic painting/printmaking
Third of May, 1808 Goya, slaughtering of Spanish rebels by French soldiers, social protest painting showing man's inhumanity to man
Raft of the "Medusa" Gericault, paintings of shipwreck survivors
Liberty Leading the People Inspired by the 1830 insurrection in Paris, liberty holds the tri-colored French flag, lead revolutionaries over the street barricades
Constable One of the first painters to paint outdoors, loved English landscape, first to paint water with clarity/depth of shadow, The Hay Wain
Turner Early works were in watercolor - anticipated Impressionist movement, Snow Storm: Steam-board off a Harbor's Mouth
Cole Leader of a group of painters in NY, rustic beauty and ideal settings were the essence of America, View on the Catskill, Early Autumn
Realism Artists of realism believed that only what they could see/experience themselves was worthy subject matter, subjects had to be treated in as natural and realistic a way as possible
Bonheur French, realist painter, animals for subjects - studied carefully, first women to receive the cross of the French Legion of Honor, Sheep by the Sea
Homer American, self-taught, started with wood engravings as illustrations, Breezing Up
Eakins One of America's finest painters, insisted that all students draw from nude models and was forced to resign as a teacher
The Gross Clinic Eakins, painted for the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, painting of a surgeon in front of an audience
Impressionism Style of painting that started in France in 1850, glimpse of the subject, emphasis on momentary effects of light on color
Post-Impressionism The style of late 19th century French art that followed Impressionism
Claude Monet Leading force in Impressionist movement bridging the span from the Realist world to the world of abstraction
Edgar Degas Drew, sculpted and painted ballerinas, The Rehearsal on The Stage
Renoir Painted portraits, still lives, landscapes, and figures creatively
Cassatt American artist who drew/painted mother and child portraits
Whistler American artist, grays/blacks, realistic portraits, Whistler's Mother
Rodin French artist, Impressionist sculptures (ex: the Thinker)
George Seurat French post-impressionist artist, pointillism, A Sunday on La Grande Jatte
Cezanne Leading painter of late 19th century France, landscapes and still-life paintings
Van Gogh Began painting at 27, sold one painting while alive, suicide at 37
Gauguin Van Gogh's friend, simple life in Tahiti
Munch Tragic events affected art
Picasso Early work was Blue Period - blue palette, cubism
Cubism Style where subject is broken apart and reassembled in abstract form - geometric shapes
Rivera Mexican muralist who married Kahlo
Matisse Fauve ("wild beast") because of a wild use of color, experimented with collage later in life
Kandinsky Created first completely nonobjective painting (1910)
Kahlo Mexican artist, married to Rivera, self-portraits
Duchamp Controversial artwork, Nude Descending a Staircase - "an explosion in a shingle factory"
Mondrian Vertical/horizontal vertical lines, primary colors
da Vinci Renaissance Man, left lots of notes in mirror images
The Last Supper da Vinci, started peeling, in restoration
Mona Lisa da Vinci, most famous portrait, hills obscured by sfumato, chiaroscuro (contrast between light and dark)
Pieta Rome, Mary holds Christ, overall appearance/visual effect
David (Michelangelo) Marble, muscular, sling shot
Dome of St. Peter's Michelangelo, largest dome in the world
Sistine Chapel Michelangelo, Old Testament, cleaned after 400 years
School of Athens Fresco, Greek masters
Titian Artistic giant from Venice
Kahlo Mexican muralist, self-portraits, third eye
Cubism Picasso (Spanish), surface design, geometric shapes
d' Avignon Picasso, African masks, began Cubist movement, not cubist painting
Guernica Picasso, symbolism, pain/chaos/agony, black/white/gray
Nude Descending the Staircase Duchamp, controversial, motion
Diagonal Composition Mondrian, nonobjective, stand on one corner
Bird in Space Brancusi, bronze, sculpture of flight
Man Pointing Bronze, elongated forms
Dali Most famous Surrealist, subject matter in illogical situations
Persistence of Memory Limp watches, large ants, partial face on a plane of depth
I and the Village Chagall, cow dreaming, dreamlike
Twittering Machine Happy, imagination
Miro Spanish, black lines, shapes of primary color/black/white, abstract people
Time Transfixed Magritte, surrealism
Object Oppenheim, surrealist, objects with fur
Steerage Stieglitz (married to O'Keeffe), sailing to Europe, separation
Lange American great depression photographer, migrant workers
Adams Emotional response in nature
O' Keeffe Abstraction, paintings of nature
Calder Abstract forms in space, "black widow", mobiles
Benton Leader of Regionalists, Midwest, nature
Wood American Gothic
Hopper Nighthawks - loneliness in cities
Remington Western, Outlaw - horse, cowboy, and movement
Lawrence Harlem Renaissance, One of the Largest Race Riots in East St. Louis - oppression of African Americans
Wright Architect, buildings grew out of their environments
Kaufmann House Wright, Falling Water, terraces stretch over waterfalls
Gehry Designed buildings to capture essence of their purpose
Pollock Drip paintings, Abstract Expressionism, Lavender Mist
Rothko Abstractionist, soft edges, blending colors, Blue, Orange, Red
Kline Abstractionist, "Meryon", less color
Oldenburg Sculptures, paintings, surrealist, pop artist, "Shoestring Potatoes Spilling from a Bag"
Lichtenstein Pop artist, "Masterpiece" looks like it's from a comic
Warhol Pop artist, repetitions, Campbell's can, "100 Cans"
Frankenthaler "Color Field Painting", "The Bay", questions whether a work is done
Close New Realist, human figure, translate photographic info to paint information, "Mark (Unfinished)"
Wyeth American scene, "Christina's World"
Hanson Life-size, colored models of people, New Realism
Moore Abstract sculptures based on human form, "Sheep Piece" - bronze sheep
Nevelson Wood sculptures, unified pieces by painting everything black
Claude Husband/wife, take something familiar and wrap it
Created by: archergirl