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Test Unit I


Monosaccharides "Simple Sugars" 3-7; They form straight chain or ring/Formula: CnH2nOn/Ex: Glucose, Galactose, Fructose/
Disaccharides "2 simple sugars"...2 simple sugars of the same # of Carbon/joined by dehydration synthesis (sucrose/Formula: CnH2n-2On-1/Glucose + Fructose= Sucrose, Glocuse + Galactose = Lactose/Glucose + Glucose= Maltose
Polysaccharides Chains of many simple sugars./Include: Cellulose(plnts)/Starches(plnts)/Glycogen(animal)-Glucose stored as Glycogen in liver & skeletal muscle./Formula:(C6H10O5)n
Lipids Mainly hydrophobic molecules(ex:fats, oils, waxes)/Composed of C,H,O (less O than carbs)./2x as much energy as carbs./Insoluble in H2O/Composed of 1 Glycerol+3 Fatty Acids.
Amino Acids ("Basic bldg blocks of proteins")../Consist of: 1-central Carbon atom/Hydrogen atom/Amino Grp/Carboxylic Acid Grp/Variable Grp (R)-distinguish 1 amino acid from another, giving each its own chemical properties.
Phospholipid Bilayer (cell membrane) -Selectively permeable/-Hydrophilic heads/-Hydrophobic fatty-acid tails/-Fluid Mosaic Model(moveable).
Nucleus Control Center/Contains DNA/ Largest organelle in the cell
Proteins & Carbohydrates Integral proteins=(channel)Peripheral proteins= bound to inner & outer surface of the membrane & easily separated from it.
Tumor (Neoplasm)-Enlarge mass of cells-Abnormal cell growth & division
Benign Tumor Contained-Not life threatening
Malignant Tumor Spread into surrounding tissues/start new tumors (metastasis)
Nucleic Acids (long chains of nucleotides form DNA&RNA) Found in the Nucleus fo the cell/Made up of:Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus/Stores & process information @ the molecular level/2 types:-DNA & RNA (&ATP)Consist of one or two long chains that are formed by dehydration synthesis.
Vitamis Organic/2 Types: Water soluble(dissolves in H2O) vitamins B & CLipid Soluble: vitamins (A, D, E & K)
Carbohydrates Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen/The body's most readily available source of energy. 3 types:Monosaccharides, Disaccharides,Polysaccharides.
Proteins Most important & abundant organic molecules/Contain: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (S-Sulfur)/Functions:-Support, Movement, Transport,Buffering,Metabolic Regulation, Coordination & Control, Defense(anti-bodies)
Denaturation Loss of shape and function due to heat or pH
Peroxisomes Enzymes containing vesicles:-break dwn fatty acids & organic conpounds producing the free radical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
Lysosomes Vacuoles containing digestive & hydrolytic enzymes:-break dwn large molecules/attack bacteria/recycle damage organelles/Autolysis-self-destruction of damaged cells
Golgi Apparatus Modify/Package & store proteins for secretion
Human Cells Somatic Cells-Diploids(contain 2 complete sets of chromosomes)/23 pair of chromosomes in our bodies/46 chromosomes total
Sex Cells (human cells) ("gametes")/Egg & Sperm/Haploid-1 set of chromosomes
Cell Membrane Provide:-Physical isolation/allows regulation of the cell/allows the cell to monitor/structural support
Types of Cells Prokaryotic-Do not contain membrane bound organelles(ex:bacteria)/Eukaryotic cells-Membrane bound organelles (ex:fungi, plant cells, animal cells)
Cell Bldg blocks of tissues"-performs all life functions/Cytology-study of cells
Mitosis duplicated DNA divided:-DNA coils into chromosomes/sister chromatids connect at a centromere
Interphase The non-dividing operiod
G0-phase Specialized cell functions (will not divide)
G1-phase Normal cell functions + cell growth, duplication of organelles, protein synthesis(8+hrs)
S-phase DNA replication & chromosome duplication (6-8hrs)
G2-phase Cells grow & prepares for Mitosis
Prophase Nucleoli disappears/Centriole pairs move to cell poles/Microtubules (spindle fibers)extend between centriole pairs/Nuclear envelope disappears/Spindle fibers attach to Kinetochore
Metaphase chromosomes align in a central place (metaphase plate/.."meet in the middle"
Anaphase Microtubules pull chromosomes apart/Daughter chromosomes group near centrioles
Telophase Nuclear membranes re-form/chromosomes uncoil/Nucleoli reappears/Cleavage furrow
Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm/Daughter cells identical
Mitochondrion Smooth outer membrane/Folded inner membrane(cristae)/Matrix-"fluid around the cristae"/Recharges ADP to ATP (ADP+P=ATP)/Primary fuel: Glucose
Cellular Respiration Glucose-final total=(38ATPs)/Glycolysis-2ATP (net)/>glucose to pyruvic acid (Cytosol)/Krebs Cycle(TCA)-2ATPs (net)/>pyruvic acid to CO2(carbon dioxide) mitochondrial matrix/Electron transport&Oxidative Phosphorylation-34ATPs-cristae of mitochondria)-Oxyge
DNA replication DNA strands unwind/DNA polymerase attaches complementary nucleotides/Complementary strands of DNA formed
DNA(& Genes) DNA-(deoxyribonucleic acid):determines heredity/instructions for every protein in the body:-directs protein synthesis/-controls enzyme production/-controls metabolism
DNA (Organization) Chromatin-loosely coiled DNA (cells NOT dividing)/Chromosome-aggregration of genes-tightly coiled DNA (cells dividing)/Gene-DNA instructions for 1 protein-aggregration of nucleotides
Nucleotide A sugar + phosphate + nitrogen base/DNA or RNA-sugar=either ribose or deoxyribose/base=DNA:A-T/G-C/RNA:A-U/G-C
Genetic Code The chemical language of DNA instructions: triplet code
mRNA Made in the nucleus/carry messages to cytoplasm
rRNA Used to make ribosomes/protein synthesis happens in ribosomes
tRNA (transfer) each tRNA binds and delivers an amino acid of a specific type
Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis/ 2types:-free ribosomes-produce proteins for cell/fixed ribosomes-produce proteins for secretion (ex:hormones)
Centrioles Form spindle apparatus during cell division/Centrosome:cytoplasm surrounding centriole
Microvilli (Non-membraneous organelles) Increase surface area for absorption
Cytoskeleton (Non-membraneous organelles) structural proteins for shape and strenght (cell movement)
pH The concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution.
Acid Lower than 7.0 pH
Basic Higher than 7.0 pH
Cancer Illness that disrupts cellular controls-produces malignant cells
Oncogenes "Natural Killer Cells"/Mutated genes that cause cancer
Rough ER Where newly synthesized proteins are chemically modified & packaged for export to next destination:"the golgi apparatus"
Smooth ER Synthesizes lipid & carbohydrates/synthesizes of the phospholipids and cholesterol/synthesis of steroid hormones/synthesis and storage of glycerides/synthesis and storage of glycogen
ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum) 4 functions:-Synthesis=special regions synthesize proteins,carbohydrates,and lipids/storage:synthesized molecules stored w/out affecting cellular operations/transport/detoxification:drugs&toxins absorbed and neutralized by enzymes.
Cilia Move fluids across the cell surface
Mitosis (cell division) somatic cells:1-3 hrs of cell cycle/growing,reparing,and replacing.
Meiosis sex cells: ovaries & testes/from diploid to haploid
Cytoplasm Materials inside the cell & outside the nucleus/
Cytosol (Intracellular fluid)/Contain dissolved materials:-nutrients,ions,proteins,and waste products
Organelles Structures w/specific functions
Isotonic Solution A solution that does NOT cause osmotic flow of water in or out of a cell (same outside as inside)/NO net movnt of water
Solvent Substance doing the dissolving
Solute Substance being dissolved
Solution Homogeneous mix of 2 or more substances
Osmosis Diffusion of water across the cell membrane
Steroids Made up of:4-Carbon rings/Cholesterol(prt of cell membrane)=36 carbons/Vitamins D-produced by skin/Bile salts-made in the liver by cholesterol/estrogen & testosterome
Peptide bond A covalent bond between the amino grp (NH2) of one amino acid and the carboxyl grp (COOH) of another
Exocytosis Ejects secretory products & waste
Pinocytosis Cell-drinking
Phagocytosis Cell-eating
Active (transport through cell membrane) requires enerby and ATP
Passive (transport through cell membrane) NO energy required: 2 types: Diffusion & Facilitated diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion (passive) Carrier mediated transport of ions and organic substances
Diffusion (passive) Either simple or channel mediated
Active transport Sodium-Potassium exchange pump/Na-K
DNA all information to build and run organisms
Nucleoplasm Fluid containing ions, enzymes, nucleotides, and some RNA
Nucleus Cell's control center/Largest organelle/Structure:-Nuclear envelope & Nuclear pores
Fatty Acids (Lipids) Saturated: DOESN'T have any Carbon-Carbon double bond/solid @ room temperature/straight
Fatty Acids (Lipids) Unsaturated:1 or more Carbon-Carbon bond/liquid @ room temp/croocked
Phospholipids & Glycolipids Component of cell membranes
Enzyme Helpers Cofactor: minerals-inorganic ion or moleculeCoenzyme: vitamins-organic molecules
Enzymes (proteins) Proteins that lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction/not CHANGED or USED up in a chemical reaction/characteristics:-1 enzyme catalyzes 1 reaction
Created by: autowns2001



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