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Ch. 10

Chabner Language of Medicine 11th Edition / Nervous System

TermDefinition
Acetylcholine Neurostransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
Afferent Nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve). (af-menaing toward, -ferent, meaning carrying)
Arachnoid Membrane Middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Astrocyte Type of glial (neurologlial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.
Autonomic Nervous System Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
Axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
Blood-brain barrier Protective seperation between the blood and brain cells. This makes it difficult for substances (such as anticancer drugs) to penetrate capillary walls and enter the brain.
Brainstem Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
Cauda Equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
Cell body Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
Central Nervous System ( CNS ) The brain and the spinal cord
Cerebellum Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
Cerebral Cortex Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain.
Cerebrospinal Fluid ( CSF ) Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve).
Dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
Dura Mater Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
Efferent Nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve.
Ependymal Cell Glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.
Ganglion (pl: Ganglia) Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
Glial Cell (neuroglial cell) Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes. Glial cells can reproduce themselves, as opposed to neurons.
Gyrus (pl: Gyri) Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded rudge on the surface of the cerebral cortex: convolution.
Hypothalamus Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
Medulla Oblongata Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.
Meninges Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Microglial Cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
Midbrain Uppermost portion of the brainstem.
Motor Nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles
Myelin Sheath Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell
Nerve Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
Neuron Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system
Neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples of neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
Oligodendrogial Cell Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte.
Parasympathetic Nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
Parenchyma Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. The parenchyma of the nervous system includes the neurons and nerves that carry nervous impulses.
Hepatocytes Parenchymal cells of the liver
Peripheral Nervous System Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord: cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
Pia Mater Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
Plexus (pl: plexuses) Large, interlacing network of nerves. Ex: Lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial plexuses.
Pons Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
Receptor Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The Skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors.
Sciatic Nerve Nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and goot.
Sciatica Pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve.
Sensory Nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve.
Spinal Nerves Thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
Stimulus (pl: stimuli) Agent of change (light, sound, touch, pressure, and pain) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
Stroma Connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells make up the stromal tissue of the brain.
Sulcus (pl: sulci) Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
Sympathetic Nerves Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
Synapse Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells.
Thalamus Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
Vagus Nerve Tenth cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach. Unlike other cranial nerves, the vagus leaves the head and "wanders" into the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
Ventricles of the Brain Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles are also found in the heart--they are the two lower chambers of the heart.
Cerebell/o Cerebellum
Cerebr/o Cerebrum
Dur/o Dura Matter
Enecephal/o Brain
Gli/o Glial Cells
Lept/o Thin, Slender
Mening/o, Meningi/o Membranes, Meninges
My/o Muscle
Myel/o Spinal Cord (means bone marrow in other contexts)
Neur/o Nerve
Pont/o Pons
Radicul/o Nerve Root (of spinal nerves)
Thalam/o Thalamus
Thec/o Sheath (refers to the meninges)
Vag/o Vagus Nerve (10th Cranial Nerve)
Alges/o, -algesia Sensitivity to pain
-algia Pain
Caus/o Burning
Comat/o Deep sleep (coma)
Esthesi/o, -esthesia Feeling, nervous sensation
Kines/o, Kinesi/o, -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic Movement
-lepsy Seizure
Lex/o Word, phrase
-paresis Weakness
-phasia Speech
-plegia Paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)
-praxia Action
-sthenia Strength
Syncop/p To cut off, cut short
Tax/o Order, coordination
Hydrocephalus Abnormal accumulation of fluid ( CSF ) in the brain
Spina Bifida Congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of verebral parts (neural tube defect)
Alzheimer Disease ( AD ) ( Alzheimer's ) Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration ( dementia ), personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ALS ) Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the psinal cord and brainstem.
Epilepsy Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity.
Huntington Disease ( Huntington's ) Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration.
Multiple Sclerosis ( MS ) Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue.
Myasthenia Gravis ( MG ) Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles.
Palsy Paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
Parkinson Disease ( Parkinson's ) Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement.
Tourette Syndrome ( Tourette's ) Involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; and inappropriate words.
Herpes Zoster ( shingles ) Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves.
Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges; leptomeningitis
Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) Encephalopathy Brain disease and dementia occurring with AIDS.
Brain Tumor Abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges
Cerebral Concussion Type of traumatic brain injury caused by a blow to the head.
Cerebral Contusion Bruising of brain tissue resulting from direct trauma to the head.
Cerebrovascular Accident ( CVA ) Disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
Migraine Severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache
Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis Samples of CSF are examined
Cerebral Angiography X-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material.
Computed Tomography ( CT ) of the brain Computerized x-ray technique that generates multiple images of the brain and spinal cord
Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI ) Magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy create images of he brain and spinal cord.
Poitron Emission Tomography ( PET ) Scan Radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells
Doppler Ultrasound Studies Sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries.
Electroencephalography ( EEG ) Recording of the electrical activity of the brain.
Lumbar Puncture ( LP ) CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae for analysis
Sterotactic Radiosurgery Use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain.
Absence Seizure Form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings
Aneurysm Enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA ( stroke ).
Astrocytoma Malignant tumor of astrocytes ( glial brain cells ).
Aura Peculiar symptom or sensation occurring before the onset ( prodromal ) of an attack of migraine or an epileptic seizure
Dementia Mental decline and deterioration
Demyelination Destruction of myelin on axons of neurons ( as in multiple sclerosis )
Dopamine CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patient with Parkinson disease.
Embolus Clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel.
Gait Manner of walking
Ictal Event Pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as with the convulsions of an epileptic seizure
Occlusion Blockage
Palliative Relieving symptoms but not curing them
Thymectomy Removal of the thymus gland ( a lymphocyte-producing gland in the chest ) ; used as treatment for myasthenia gravis
TIA Transient ischemic attack. TIAs can occur with all three types of strokes : thrombolytic, embolic, and even hemorrhagic ( if minor ). They are characterized by a limited time course of neurologic deficits.
Tic Involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic of Tourette Syndrome
Tonic-Clonic Seizure Major ( grand mal ) convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements.
AD Alzheimer disease
AFP Alpha-Fetoprotein; elevated levels in amniotic fluid and maternal blood are associated with congenital malformations of the nervous system, such as anencephaly and spina bifida
ALS Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis -- Lou Gehrig Disease
AVM Arteriovenous Malformation; congenital tangle of arteries and veins in the cerebrum
BBB Blood-brain barrier
CNS Central Nervous System
CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid
CTE Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
CVA Cerebrovascular Accident
EEG Electroencephalography
GABA Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (neurotransmitter)
ICP Intracranial Pressure (normal pressure is 5 to 15 mm Hg)
LP Lumbar Puncture
MAC Monitored Anesthetic Care
MG Myasthenia Gravis
MRA Magnetic Resonance Angiography
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
MS Multiple Sclerosis
1/2 P Hemiparesis
PCA Patient-Controlled Analgesia
PET Positron Emission Tomography
PNS Peripheral Nervous System
PSRS Proton Stereotactic Radiosurgery
Sz Seizure
TBI Traumatic Brain Injury
TENS Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation; technique using a bettery-powered device to relieve acute and chronic pain
TIA Transient Ischemic Attack; temporary interference with the blood supply to the brain
TLE Temporal Love Epilepsy
tPA Tissue Plasminogen Activator; a clot-dissolving drug used as therapy for stroke
Created by: AbiNoel