Normal Size Small Size show me how
Chabner Language of Medicine 11th Edition / Nervous System
|Neurostransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
|Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve). (af-menaing toward, -ferent, meaning carrying)
|Middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord.
|Type of glial (neurologlial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.
|Autonomic Nervous System
|Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
|Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
|Protective seperation between the blood and brain cells. This makes it difficult for substances (such as anticancer drugs) to penetrate capillary walls and enter the brain.
|Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.
|Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
|Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
|Central Nervous System ( CNS )
|The brain and the spinal cord
|Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
|Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain.
|Cerebrospinal Fluid ( CSF )
|Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord
|Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
|Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve).
|Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
|Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
|Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve.
|Glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.
|Ganglion (pl: Ganglia)
|Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
|Glial Cell (neuroglial cell)
|Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes. Glial cells can reproduce themselves, as opposed to neurons.
|Gyrus (pl: Gyri)
|Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded rudge on the surface of the cerebral cortex: convolution.
|Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
|Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.
|Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
|Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system
|Uppermost portion of the brainstem.
|Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles
|Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell
|Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
|Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system
|Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples of neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
|Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte.
|Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
|Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. The parenchyma of the nervous system includes the neurons and nerves that carry nervous impulses.
|Parenchymal cells of the liver
|Peripheral Nervous System
|Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord: cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
|Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
|Plexus (pl: plexuses)
|Large, interlacing network of nerves. Ex: Lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial plexuses.
|Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
|Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The Skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors.
|Nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and goot.
|Pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve.
|Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve.
|Thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
|Stimulus (pl: stimuli)
|Agent of change (light, sound, touch, pressure, and pain) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
|Connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells make up the stromal tissue of the brain.
|Sulcus (pl: sulci)
|Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure
|Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
|Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells.
|Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
|Tenth cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach. Unlike other cranial nerves, the vagus leaves the head and "wanders" into the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
|Ventricles of the Brain
|Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Ventricles are also found in the heart--they are the two lower chambers of the heart.
|Spinal Cord (means bone marrow in other contexts)
|Nerve Root (of spinal nerves)
|Sheath (refers to the meninges)
|Vagus Nerve (10th Cranial Nerve)
|Sensitivity to pain
|Deep sleep (coma)
|Feeling, nervous sensation
|Kines/o, Kinesi/o, -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic
|Paralysis (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body)
|To cut off, cut short
|Abnormal accumulation of fluid ( CSF ) in the brain
|Congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of verebral parts (neural tube defect)
|Alzheimer Disease ( AD ) ( Alzheimer's )
|Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration ( dementia ), personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning.
|Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ( ALS )
|Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the psinal cord and brainstem.
|Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity.
|Huntington Disease ( Huntington's )
|Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration.
|Multiple Sclerosis ( MS )
|Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue.
|Myasthenia Gravis ( MG )
|Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles.
|Paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
|Parkinson Disease ( Parkinson's )
|Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement.
|Tourette Syndrome ( Tourette's )
|Involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; and inappropriate words.
|Herpes Zoster ( shingles )
|Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves.
|Inflammation of the meninges; leptomeningitis
|Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) Encephalopathy
|Brain disease and dementia occurring with AIDS.
|Abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges
|Type of traumatic brain injury caused by a blow to the head.
|Bruising of brain tissue resulting from direct trauma to the head.
|Cerebrovascular Accident ( CVA )
|Disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
|Severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache
|Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis
|Samples of CSF are examined
|X-ray imaging of the arterial blood vessels in the brain after injection of contrast material.
|Computed Tomography ( CT ) of the brain
|Computerized x-ray technique that generates multiple images of the brain and spinal cord
|Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI )
|Magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy create images of he brain and spinal cord.
|Poitron Emission Tomography ( PET ) Scan
|Radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells
|Doppler Ultrasound Studies
|Sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries.
|Electroencephalography ( EEG )
|Recording of the electrical activity of the brain.
|Lumbar Puncture ( LP )
|CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae for analysis
|Use of a specialized instrument to locate and treat targets in the brain.
|Form of seizure consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings
|Enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA ( stroke ).
|Malignant tumor of astrocytes ( glial brain cells ).
|Peculiar symptom or sensation occurring before the onset ( prodromal ) of an attack of migraine or an epileptic seizure
|Mental decline and deterioration
|Destruction of myelin on axons of neurons ( as in multiple sclerosis )
|CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patient with Parkinson disease.
|Clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel.
|Manner of walking
|Pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as with the convulsions of an epileptic seizure
|Relieving symptoms but not curing them
|Removal of the thymus gland ( a lymphocyte-producing gland in the chest ) ; used as treatment for myasthenia gravis
|Transient ischemic attack. TIAs can occur with all three types of strokes : thrombolytic, embolic, and even hemorrhagic ( if minor ). They are characterized by a limited time course of neurologic deficits.
|Involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic of Tourette Syndrome
|Major ( grand mal ) convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements.
|Alpha-Fetoprotein; elevated levels in amniotic fluid and maternal blood are associated with congenital malformations of the nervous system, such as anencephaly and spina bifida
|Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis -- Lou Gehrig Disease
|Arteriovenous Malformation; congenital tangle of arteries and veins in the cerebrum
|Central Nervous System
|Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
|Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (neurotransmitter)
|Intracranial Pressure (normal pressure is 5 to 15 mm Hg)
|Monitored Anesthetic Care
|Magnetic Resonance Angiography
|Magnetic Resonance Imaging
|Positron Emission Tomography
|Peripheral Nervous System
|Proton Stereotactic Radiosurgery
|Traumatic Brain Injury
|Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation; technique using a bettery-powered device to relieve acute and chronic pain
|Transient Ischemic Attack; temporary interference with the blood supply to the brain
|Temporal Love Epilepsy
|Tissue Plasminogen Activator; a clot-dissolving drug used as therapy for stroke