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muscle chapter 6

extensibility to be stretched
shorten with a force contractility
to respond to a stimulus excitability
original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
each skeletal muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath epimysium
surrounded by loose connective tissue perimysium
connective tissue located outside the epimysium fascia
each fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath endomysium
fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells fibers
myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
thick myofilament myosin myofilament
actin myofilament thin myofilament
axon enter the muscle and branch
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
brief reversal back of the charge action potentials
charge difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
joined end to end to form the myofibril sarcomeres
Each branch that connects to the muscle neuromuscular junction
near the center of the cell synapse
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
enlarged nerve terminal presynaptic terminal
muscle fiber postsynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
secrete a neurotransmitter acetylcholine
Each presynaptic terminal synaptic vesicles
muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzymes aceetylcholinesterase
the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction sliding filament mechanism
shortens H band and I band
doesn't change in length A band
is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level threshold
phenomenon all or none response
time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
produced in the mitochondria atp
When at rest they can’t stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule creatine phosphate
without oxygen anaerobic respiration
with oxygen aerobic respiration
amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells oxygen debt
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells muscle fatigue
2 types of muscle contractions isometric and isotonic
the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process isometric
the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes isotonic
refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time muscle tone
contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast twitch fibers
contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue low twitch fibers
most stationary end of the muscle origin
end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergist
Muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonist
Among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes the eyelids and causes “crows feet” wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering levator labii superioris
frowning depressor anguli oris
chewing mastication
change the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
group of muscles on each side of the back erector spinae
lateral neck muscle and prime mover sternocleidomastoid
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
elevate the ribs during inspiration external intercostals
contract during forced expiration internal intercostals
accomplishes quiet breathing diaphragm
muscles of the anterior abdominal wall flex and rotate the vertebral column, compress the abdominal cavity, and hold in the abdominal viscera abdominal wall muscles
tendinous area of the abdominal wall linea alba
each side of the linea alba rectus abdominis muscles
cross the rectus abdominis at three or more locations, causing the abdominal wall of a well-muscled person to appear segmented tendinous inscriptions
rotates scapula trapezius
Created by: jpmcguire



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