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contractility ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
excitability capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity to recoil to their original resting length after being stretched
skeletal muscle surrounded by connective tissue sheath epimysium
fascia connective tissue located outside the epimysium surrounds and separates muscles
perimysium muscle composed of numerous visible bundles surrounded by loose connective tissue
fibers fasciculi composed of single muscle cells
endomysium each fiber surrounded by connective tissue sheath
myofibrils structure extends from one end of the fiber to the other
sarcomeres basic structural and functional unit of the muscle. joined end to end to form myofibril
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
muscle fatigue atp is used when muscle contraction is faster than it can be produced in muscle cells
isometric equal distance. length of muscle does not change but amount of tension increase during contraction process
isotonic equal tension. tension produced when muscle is constant during contraction but the length of muscle changes.
muscle tone constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
fast twitch fibers contracts quickly and fatigues quickly. ex white meat chickens breast
slow twitch fibers contracts slowly and are more resistant to fatigue . ex dark meat ducks breast and leg of chicken
origin most stationary end of the muscle
insertion end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly portion of muscle between origin and insertion
synergist muscle works together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover plays a major role in accomplishing the desired movement
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments 2 min strands of pearls twisted together
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments resemble bundles of min golf clubs
resting membrane potential charge difference across the membrane
action potential brief reversal back of the charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
each branch that connects to the muscle neuromuscular junction
near the center of the cell synapse
enters the muscles and branch axons
single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates motor unit
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
muscle fibers that don't respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level which point the muscle fibers will contact maximally threshold
time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and beginning of a contraction lag phase
time of contraction contraction phase
time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase
where muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
occipitofrontalis raise the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi close the eyelids wrinkles in the corner of eye
orbicularis oris puckers the lips
buccinator flattens the cheeks
kissing muscles orbicularis oris and buccinator
zygomaticus smiling muscle
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
mastication chewing
change the shape of the tongue intrinsic tongue muscles
move the tongue extrinsic tongue muscles
sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover. rotates and abducts the head
erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back
muscles that move the thorax thoracic muscles
trapezius rotates scapula
serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
latissimus dorsi swimmer muscles. rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends arm
deltoid attaches humerus to the scapula and clavicle
triceps brachii extends forearm occupies posterior compartment of the arm
biceps brachii flexes the forearm occupies anterior compartment
brachialis flexes forearm
branchioradialis flexes and supinates the forearm
flexor carpi flexes the wrist
extensor carpi extends the wrist
flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
extensor digitorum extends the fingers
gluteus maximus buttocks hip muscle and common injection site
quadriceps femoris extends the leg anterior thigh muscles
Sartorius tailors muscle flexes the thigh
hamstring muscles posterior thigh muscle flexes the leg and extends thigh
gastrocnemius and soleus form the calf muscle
lateral muscles of the leg peroneus
20 muscles located in the foot intrinsic muscle
Created by: haygrace



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