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Final Exam


hematocrit percent of whole blood that is made up of RBC
erthrocytes/hemoglobin carry oxygen to tissues
throbocytes play an important role in hemostasis
embolus blocks the flow of blood through a blood vessel
leukocytes eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes
red bone marrow blood cells are formed here
hemorrhage significant loss of blood
ABO blood grouping proper blood matching to ensure gglutination and hemolysis do not occur
lymph fluid that is filtered through the lymph nodes
integumentary system 1st line of defense
inflammation red, swollen, hot, pain are all signs. 2nd line of defense
abscess localized sealed pocket of pus
immune defense organ systems lymphatic, integumentary, skeletal
pertistalsis moves flood along the digestive tract
smooth muscles digestive tract is made up of these muscles
duodenum part of intestine that connects to the stomach
common bile duct bile travels to the duodenum via this structure
gallbladder stores bile
function of the liver makes bile, stores iron
pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine funcions
carbohydrates provide the most readily available energy source from food
cornea window of the eye, clear portion of the sclera
lens affected by cataracts
chalazion cyst-like nodule due to blocked oil gland
lacrimal apparatus produce tears
accommodation lens changes shape to provide sharp focus
diabetic retinopathy leading cause of blindness
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
conductive deafness obstruction in the external auditory meatus and a build up of cerumen
eustachian tube connects middle ear to throat
inner ear responsible for maintaining equilibrium
vertigo and tinnitus dizziness and ringing in the ears
anosmia loss of ability to taste
hematopoiesis formation of blood cellular components that occurs in the bone
axial skeleton skull and spinal column(vertebrae)
pelvic girdle ilium, ishium, sacrum, coccyx
bone types spongy and compact
tendons connect muscle to bones
voluntary controlled muscle skeletal
cardiac muscle only found in the heart
leg muscles quadriceps, hamstrings, soleus
sympathetic nervous system fight or flight
myelin sheath white covering formed by glia cells that cover axons
brain stem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
corpus callosum communication between the two cerebral cortex hemispheres occurs here
cerebullum controls coordination and balance
cerebrum responsible for emotions, intellect, and memory
parts of the neuron axon, dendrite, nucleus
synapse connection between two neurons
meningitis inflammation of the meninges caused by virus or bacteria
ischemic stroke blood supply to the brain is suddenly interrupted by an occlusion
organs that regulate blood glucose kidneys, liver, pancreas
thymus gland part of the immune system and endocrine system
graves disease abnormal levels of thyroxine
hormones that maintain homeostasis of blood calcium calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
cushing sysndrome disorder of the adrenal gland
alzheimers disease neurodegenerative disease that destroys brain cells affecting memory
susceptibilty lack of resistance
pathogen microorganism that causes disease. bacteria, virus
edema swelling of tissue due to accumulation of fluid
non-specific resistance born with it, immediate but general protection, 1st line of defense, doesn't recognized pathogens
specific resistance acquired/adaptive 3rd line of defense. developed for each type of invader
specific immune response eg. lymphocytes, antibodies, macrophages
2nd line of defense inflammatory response, fever, phagocytic and natural killer cells
bursitis inflammation of the bursa
gouty arthritis excessive amount of uric acid in blood causing uratre crystals to be deposited in joints
herniated discs rupture of the invertral disk causing pressure on spinal nerve roots
kyphosis abnormal condition of a hump of the thoracic spine
lordosis abnormal condition of bending forward of the lumbar spine
muscular dystropy hereditary disease that causes degeneration of the muscle causing weakness
myasthenia gravis chronic. characterized by muscle weakness. thought to be caused by a defect in the transmission of impulses from nerve to muscle
osteoporosis abnormal loss of bone density
rheumatoid arthritis chronic systemic disease. autoimmune inflammatory changes in the connective tissue-affects synovial joints
scoliosis abnormal condition of a curved spine
tendonitits inflammation of the tendons
fractures closed(simple), open(compound)
comminuted many fragments (older people)
compression crushed
depressed pressed inward (skull)
impacted forced into each other
spiral ragged (sports)
greenstick incomplete break (children)
antigen substance that triggers an immune response when introdued to the body
antibody substance produced that inactivates/destroys antigens(invaders)
cervical vertebrae C1-C7
thoracic vertebrae T1-T12
lumbar veterbrae
sacrum S1-S5
C1 Atlas - holds head
C2 Axis - pivot
appendicular skeleton extremities
small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
large intestine cecum, ascending , transverse, descending, sigmoid , rectum
neurotransmitters epinephrine, endorphins, serotonine
meninges protect the brain and spinal cord
CNS brain and spinal cord
cerebral structures frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital
PNS (peripheral) spinal, cranial, and sciatic nerves
2 divisions of the PNS somatic and autonomic
2 divisions of the autonomic system sympathetic and parasympathetic
FUNCTION OF THE AUTONOMIC SYSTEM controls smooth and cardiac muscles
Created by: rharding
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