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muscular system

Muscle Cells Muscle Fibers
Four Major Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle Contractility, Excitability, Extensibility, Elasticity
The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus Excitability
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
The ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched Elasticity
A connective tissue sheath that surrounds each skeletal muscle Epimysium
A connective tissue that is located outside of the epimysium. It surrounds and separates muscle. Fascia
Loose connective tissue that surrounds muscle fasciculi Perimysium
A connective tissue sheath that surrounds muscle fibers Endomysium
A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other. Found in the cytoplasm of each fiber. Myofibrils
Thin myofilaments that resemble 2 strands of pearls twisted together Actin Myofilaments
Thick myofilaments that resemble bundles of mini gold clubs Myosin Myofilaments
Units that are joined end to end to form the myofibril Sarcomeres
The basic structural and functional unit of the muscle Sarcomere
Where each sarcomere extends from One Z line to another Z line
A light area on each side of the Z line consisting of actin I band
A band extending the length of the myosin that is the darker central region of the sarcomere A band
A light area in the center of each sarcomere that consists of only myosin H zone
The myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark stained band called the M line
Raises the eyebrows Occipitofrontalis
Closes the eyelids and causes "crows feet" wrinkles in the skin at the lateral corners of the eye Orbicularis oculi
Puckers the lips Orbicularis oris
Flattens the cheeks. Trumpeter's muscle. Buccinator
Kissing muscles Orbicularis oris and buccinator
Smiling Muscle Zygomaticus
Sneering Levator labii superioris
Frowning Depressor anguli oris
Mastification Chewing
Change the shape of the tongue Intrinsic tongue muscles
Move the tongue Extrinsic tongue muscles
Lateral neck muscle and prime mover. Rotates and abducts the head. Sternocleidmastoid
Group of muscles on each side of the back. Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect Erector spinae
Elevate the ribs during inspiration External intercostals
Contract during forced expiration Internal intercostals
Accomplishes quiet breathing. Dome-shaped muscle. Aids in breathing. Diaphragm
Rotates scapula Trapezius
Pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus anterior
The arm is attached to the thorax by the Pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles
Adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
Medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm Latissimus dorsi
Flexes forearm Brachialis
Flexes and supinates the forearm Brachioradialis
Attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb Deltoid
Flexes the wrist Flexor carpi
Extends the wrist Extensor carpi
Flexes the fingers Flexor digitorum
Extends the fingers Extensor digitorum
Hand muscles located within the hand Intrinsic hand muscles
How many intrinsic hand muscles are there? 19
Muscles located between the metacarpals, are responsible for abduction and adduction of the fingers Interossi muscles
Buttocks Gluteus maximus
Extends the legs, anterior thigh muscles Quadriceps femoris
“Tailors muscle,” flexes the thigh Sartorius
Posterior thigh muscles; flexes the leg and extends the thigh Hamstring muscles
Form the calf muscle and join to form the calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon). Flex the foot and toes. Gastrocnemius and soleus
The lateral muscles of the leg, are primarily everters (turning the lateral side of the foot outward) of the foot, but they also aid in plantar flexion. Peroneus muscles
Muscles located within the foot, flex extend, abduct, and adduct the toes Intrinsic foot muscles
How many intrinsic foot muscles are there? 20
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers. Muscle twitch
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the Lag phase
The time of contraction is the Contraction phase
The time during which the muscle relaxes is the Relaxation phase
Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing. Tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated is called Recruitment
needed for energy for muscle contraction. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Where is ATP produced? In the mitochondria
It is necessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP. When at rest they can’t stockpile ATP but they can store another high-energy molecule, called Creatine phosphate
Which type of respiration is without oxygen? Anaerobic
Which type of respiration uses oxygen? Aerobic
Which type of respiration is more efficient? Aerobic
results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells. Muscle fatigue
The ________\_____ is the most stationary end of the muscle. Origin / head
The _________ is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement. Insertion
The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion is the Belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements are called Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another are called Antagonists
Created by: kaitlinmayyy



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