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Ch 6

What is contractility? Contractility is the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
What is the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to stimulus ? Excitability
What is the ability to be stretched? Extensibility
What is elasticity? It is the ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
What is the connective tissue sheath around each skeletal muscle? Epimysium
What is another connective tissue located outside the epimysium? Fascia
A muscle composed of numerous visible bundles are called? Muscle fasciculi (fascicle)
What loose connective tissue surrounds muscle fasciculi? Perimysium
Fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells called what? Fibers
Cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with what? Myofibrils
What are myofibrils? Myofibrils are a thread like structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
What are the two major kinds of protein fibers myofibrils consist of? Actin myofilaments and myosin myofilaments
What is the difference between actin myofilaments and myosin myofilaments? Actin myofilaments are thin myofilaments and myosin myofilaments are thick myofilaments
What do both myofilaments form together? Together they form highly ordered unties called sarcomeres.
Where do sarcomeres join together at? They join together end to end to form the myofibril
What is the basic structural and functional unit of the muscle? Sarcomere
True or False. Sarcomere extends from one Z line to another Z line? True
True or False. Each Z line is not an attachment site for actin? False
True or False. The A band extends the length of the myosin True
True or False. An I band is the central region in each sarcomere? False
True or False. Each side of the Z line is a light area called an I band? True
What is the charge difference across a membrane called? It is called the resting membrane potential
What are motor neurons? They are nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
A motor unit is what? A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called a motor unit
The enlarged nerve terminal is the? Presynaptic terminal
What is the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell called? Synaptic cleft
What is the postsynaptic terminal? It is a muscle fiber
What does each presynaptic terminal contain? They all contain a synaptic vesicle
What do synaptic vesicles secrete? They secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
What is the enzynme that acetylcholine releases? Acetylcholinesterase
How does muscle contraction occur? Actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten
What is the sliding of actin myofilaments past mysoin myfilaments called? It is called sliding filament mechanism
What is muscle twitch? Muscle twitch is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
What is a threshold? It is a level a stimulus reaches when muscle fibers react
The phenomenon of the muscle fiber contracting maximally is called what? All-or-none response
What is the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction ? Lag phase
The time of contraction is the? Contraction phase
During the time when muscle relaxes is the? Relaxation phase
What is tetany? Tetany is where muscle remains contracted without relaxing
What is the increase in number of motor units being activated called? Recruitment
True or False. You DON'T need ATP for energy for muscle contractions. False
True or False. ATP is produced in the mitochondria. True
True or False. ATP is short-lived and unstable. True
True or False. Creatine phosphate IS NOT another high-energy molecule False
True or False. Synthesized creatine phosphate is made from ATP True
Mitochondria produces what? ATP
What does ATP degenerates to? ADP
When muscles rest they can't stockpile what? ATP
What is anaerobic respiration ? Without oxygen
What is aerobic respiration? With oxygen
The amount of oxygen needed in a chemical reaction to convert lactic acid to glucose is? Oxygen debt
What is the portion of muscle between the origin and the insertion called? Belly
What is the most stationary end of the muscle? Origin
What is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement? Insertion
What are muscles that work together called? Synergist
Muscles that work in opposition to one another are called? Antagonists
Among a group of synergist, if one muscle plays a major role accomplishing the desired movement, it is called? A prime mover
Muscles have names that are descriptive. What are they? Names as according to their location, size, orientation of fibers, shape, origin, insertion, and function.
What do the occipitofrontalis do? Raise eyebrows
What closes the eyelids? Orbicularis oculi
What puckers the lips? Orbicularis oris
Buccinator flatten what? The cheeks
What are the two kissing muscles? Buccinator and orbicularis oris
What does levator labii superioris do? Sneer
Frowing is caused by? Depressor anguli oris?
The zygomaticus is what? The smiling muscle
What are the 4 parts of mastication muscles? 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and the masseter
What changes the shape of the tongue? Intrinsic tongue muscles
What moves the tongue? Extrinsic tongue muscles
What is the group of muscles on each side of the back? Erector spinae
True or False. The muscles of the anterior abdominal wall do not flex or rotate the vertebral column. False
Adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
The deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the ? Upper limb
What extends the forearm Triceps brachii
What flexes the wrist? Flexor carpi
Created by: LyonsT



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