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CH. 6 MUSCLES

QuestionAnswer
Ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force. Contractility
Capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus. Excitability
Ability to be stretched. Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after being stretched. Elasticity
What helps to produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temperature? Muscles
What connective tissue sheath surrounds the skeletal muscle? Epimysium
What connective tissue is located and surrounds the outside of the Epimysium? Fascia
What loose connective tissue surrounds the muscle fascicle? Perimysium
Fasciculi are composed of single muscle cells. Fibers
What connective tissue sheath is surrounds each fiber? Endomysium
Each muscle fiber is a ______ cylindrical cell containing several nuclei. Single
A threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other. Myofibrils
Myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers: Actin and Myosin Myofilaments
Thin; resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together. Actin Myofilaments
Thick; resemble bundles of minute golf clubs. Myosin Myofilaments
Both myofilaments form highly ordered units called Sarcomeres
Sarcomeres are joined end to end to form what? Myofibril
Each Z line extends from where? One Z line to another Z line.
On each side of the Z line is a light area called An I Band
What consists of Actin? An I Band
What extends the length of the myosin? A Band
What is the darker area of each sarcaromere? A Band
What is another light area in the sarcomere? H Zone
What consists of only myosin? H Zone
What is in the center of the sarcormere at a dark staining band? M Line
The outside of most cell membranes is ______ ______. Positively Charged
The inside of most cell membranes is ______ ______. Negatively Charged
What is the charge difference across the membrane called? Rest Membrane Potential
The brief reversal back of charge is called______ _____. Action Potential
What are nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers? Motor Neurons
Axons enter the ______ and branch. Muscles
Each branch that connects to the muscle forms a what? Neuromusclular Junction
What is another word for Neuromusclular Junction? Synapse
A single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called ______ ______. Motor Unit
Many motor units form a ______ muscle. Single
An enlarged nerve terminal resting in in an indentation of the muscle cell membrane forms what? Neuronmusclular Junction
What is the enlarged terminal? Presynaptic Terminal
What is the space between the Presynaptic Terminal and the muscle cell? Synaptic Cleft
What is the muscle fiber inside of the Syaptic Cleft? Postsynaptic Terminal
What does each presynaptic terminal contain? Synaptic Vesicles
What is a secreted neurotransmitter? Acetylcholine
What is an enzymatic breakdown? Acetylcholinesterase
When does muscle contraction occur? When actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another.
What happens when sarcomeres shorten? It causes the muscle to shorten.
The sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction is called the _____ _____ _____. Sliding Filament Mechanism
Which band doesn't shorten: A, H, or I? A Bands
What is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus? Muscle Twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called _______. Threshold
The muscle fiber will contract maximally; the phenomenon is called ______ ______. All-or-None Response
The tine between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is the_____ _____. Lag Phase
What is the time of contraction called? Contraction Phase
What is the time during which the muscle relaxes called? Relaxation Phase
Where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing is called? Tetany
What is the increase in number of motor units being activated called? Recruitment
What does ATP stand for? Adenosine Triphosphate
What is ATP needed for? Energy for muscle contraction
Where is ATP produced? Mitochondria
ATP is ________ and __________. Short-lived and Unstable
ATP degenerates to the more stable ___ plus phosphate. ADP
What does ADP stand for? Adenosine Diphosphate
What is another high-energy molecule called? Creatine Phosphate
Without oxygen... Anaerobic Respiration
With oxygen... Aerobic Respiration
The amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose. Oxygen Debt
What results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells? Muscle Fatigue
The length of the muscle does not change, but the tension increases during the contraction process. Isometric
The amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes. Isotonic
Refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time; Keeps head up and back straight. Muscle Tone
Contract and fatigue quickly; white meat of a chicken's breast. Fast-Twitch Fibers
Contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue; dark meat of a duck's breast or the legs of a chicken. Slow-Twitch Fibers
The most stationary end of the muscle; head. Origin
The end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement. Insertion
The portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion. Belly
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements. Synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another. Antagonists
If one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement then it is... The Prime Mover
Created by: chloebelle381