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Ch. 6 Muscles

QuestionAnswer
Ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force. Contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus. Excitability
The ability to be stretched. Extensibility
Ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched. Elasticity
Connective tissue sheath that covers the skeletal muscle. Epimysium
Another connective tissue located outside the epimysium Fascia
Loose connective tissue that surrounds the bundles of muscle fibers Perimysium
Muscle cells Fibers
Connective tissue sheet that surrounds fibers Endomysium
Threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other Myofibrils
Actin thin myofilaments
Myosin thick myofilaments
Basic structural and functional unit of the muscle Sarcomeres
Charge difference across the membrane Resting membrane potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor neurons
enlarged nerve terminal Presynaptic terminal
space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell Synaptic cleft
the muscle fiber Postsynaptic terminal
Each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
secreted from the synaptic vesicles acetylcholine
breaks down acetylcholine acetylcholinesterase
sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction sliding filament mechanism
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers. Muscle twitch
point when the muscle fiber will contract maximally Threshold
time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction Lag phase
Muscle remains contracted without relaxing Tetany
Increase in number of motor units being activated Recruitment
Less stable adenosine phosphate; 3 phosphates ATP
More stable adenosine phosphate; 2 phosphates ADP
High energy molecule Creatine Phosphate
Anaerobic respiration Without Oxygen
Aerobic respiration With Oxygen
Amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose Oxygen debt
When ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells Muscle fatigue
equal distance; length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process Isometric
equal tension; amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of muscle changes Isotonic
Constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time Muscle tone
Raises eyebrows Occipitofrontalis
Closes the eyelids Orbicularis oculi
puckers the lips Orbicularis oris
Flattens the cheeks. Trumpeter’s muscle. Buccinator
Kissing Muscles Buccinator and Orbicularis oris
Smiling muscle Zygomaticus
Sneering Levator labii superioris
Frowning Depressor anguli oris
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter.
change the shape of the tongue Intrinsic Tongue Muscles
move the tongue Extrinsic Tongue Muscles
lateral neck muscle and prime mover Sternocleidomastoid
most stationary end of the muscle origin
portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
Muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
Muscles that work in opposition to one another antagonists
Among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement prime mover
contract quickly and fatigue quickly Fast-twitch fibers
contract more slowly Slow-twitch fibers
group of muscles on each side of the back Erector spinae
rotates scapula Trapezius
pulls scapula anteriorly Serratus anterior
The arm is attached to the thorax by the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles.
adducts and flexes the arm Pectoralis major
medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm. “Swimmer muscles” Latissimus dorsi
attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle, and is the major abductor of the upper limb Deltoid
extends the forearm. Triceps brachii
flexes the forearm Biceps brachii
flexes forearm Brachialis
flexes and supinates the forearm. Brachioradialis
flexes the wrist Flexor carpi
extends the wrist Extensor carpi
flexes the fingers Flexor digitorum
extends the fingers. Extensor digitorum
extends the leg; anterior thigh muscles Quadriceps femoris
“tailors muscle”; flexes the thigh Sartorius
posterior thigh muscles Hamstring muscles
Created by: akball24