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Chap 6 muscles

contractility ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
excitability skeletal muscle respond to a stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length
skeletal muscle is surrounded by what connective tissue sheath epimysium
another connective tissue located outside of the epimysium (surrounds separate muscles) fascia
the muscle bundles are covered by perimysium
fasciculi are composed of a single muscle cells called? fibers
each muscle fiber contains several nuclei
each fiber is surrounded by endomysium
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with myofibrils
myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers actin, myosin
actin and myosin myofilaments form highly ordered units called sarcomeres
sarcomeres is the basic structural and functional unit
each sarcomere extends from z line to z line
the arrangement of actin and myosin give a banded look
beside the z lines there is an area called I band
the a band extends the length of the myosin (darker area)
the center area is called the h zone
the myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere called m line
the outside of most cell membranes are + and the inside -, whats the difference called resting membrane potential
muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly, the brief reversal back is called action potential
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
axons enter the muscles and branch , the muscles branches form neuromuscular junction or synapse
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates are called a - motor unit
a neuromuscular junction is formed by an enlarged nerve terminal resting in a indentation of the muscle cell membrane (t or f) true .
the enlarged nerve terminal is the presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the---- and the muscle fiber is synaptic cleft,-----, postsynaptic terminal
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
acetylcholine difusses across the synaptic cleft
action reaches the nerve terminal releases acetylochine
breaks down acetylochine acetylochinesterase
muscle contractions occur as the actin and myosin slide past one another causing shortening
when sacromeres shorten so do the.. muscles
the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin during contraction is called sliding filament mechanism
muscle twitch a contration of the entire muscle in response to a stimulus
a muscle fiber will no respond to a stimulus until it reaches a threshold
the complete contraction is called all or none response
the time between the stimulus and the contraction is the lag phase
the time of contraction is contraction phase
the time the muscle relaxes is relaxation phase
successive stimuli are given to cause successive contractions for the muscle to have no time to relax
tetany the muscle remains contracted
the increase in number of motor units being activates is called recruitment
atp means adenosine triphosphate
atp is needed for.... muscle contractions
atp is produced in mitochondtria
atp is short lived and unstable
atp transforms into adp
adp stands for adenosine diphosphate
it is necessary for muscles to constantly produce atp
they stock pile atp but they can produce creatine phosphate
during periods of inactivity the atp energy is used to synthesize creatine phosphate
during times of activity the energy stored in creatine can be used to make atp
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
after exercise ends the respiration rate stays high (T/F) true
the high rate of respiration is to renew the oxygen debt
the oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions
muscle fatigue results when atp is used during contraction faster then it is produced
how many types of muscle contractions isometric and isotonic
isometric is the length of the muscle doesn't change, but the amount of tension increases
isotonic is the amount of tension is constant but the length of muscle changes
muscle tone muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body
how many different twitch fibers are there 2
the 2 different twitch fibers fast and slow
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly and fatigue slower
fast twitch fibers is adapted for anaerobic metabolism
slow twitch fibers is adapted for aerobic metabolism
the points of attachments of each muscle is its origin and insertion
the origin is the most stationary end of the muscle
the insertion is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion the belly
some muscles have multiple orgins or head(T/F) true
muscles that work together to accomplish a specific movement are synergists
muscle that work in opposite are anatgonists
among a group of synergists if a muscle has a major role it is called a prime mover
muscle are names are descriptive
muscles are named to their location, size, shape, origin, fuction, etc.
Created by: RickyJenkins



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