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CH. 6 MUSCLES

QuestionAnswer
Contraction to shorten or develop muscle tension
Muscle Fibers muscle cells
Skeletal Muscle muscles attached to skeleton
Endomysium thin connective tissue surrounding each cell
Perimysium connective tissues enveloping bundles of muscle fibers
Epimysium sheath of fibrous connective tissue surrounding muscles
Fascicle bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue
Smooth Muscle muscle unstriped and spine shaped; involuntary
Cardiac Muscle heart muscle
Sarcolemma fine, transparent, tubular sheath that envelops the fibers of skeletal muscles
Sacomere extends from one Z disc to the next
Myosin principle contractile proteins found in muscle
Actin contractile protein
Sarcoplasmic reticulum network of tubular or saclike channels in cytoplasm of muscle cells
Motor Unit motor neuron and all the muscle cells it supplies
Axon conducting portion of a nerve cell
Acetylcholine chemical transmitter substance released by certain nerve endings
Muscle fatigue decline in ability to use muscles
Isotenic having tension of the same tone
Isometric of the same length
Origin muscle that remains fixed during muscle contractions
Insertion moveable attachment of muscle opposed to its origin
Synergists muscles working with other muscles to produce movements
Antagonists muscles that work against movements
Fixators muscles acting to immobilize a joint or a bone
Contractility skeletal muscle to shorten with force
Excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
Extensibility the ability to be stretched
Elasticity ability to go back to its original form after being stretched
Muscle twitch contraction of entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action
Contraction phase time of contraction
Relaxation phase times when muscles are relaxed
Tetany muscle remains contracted without relaxing
Recruitment increase in number of motor units activated
Creatine Phosphate found in vertebrate muscle, where it serves to store phosphates to provide energy for muscular contraction
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
Aerobic respiration with oxygen
Oxygen Debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to replenish muscle cells
Muscle Tone constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
Fast- twitch Fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
Slow- twitch Fibers contract slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
Belly portion of muscle between its origin and the insertion
Prime mover one muscle that plays the major role
Ways to classify muscle names location, size, shape, orientation of fibers
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids and causes "crows feet" wrinkles
Orbicularis oris puckers lips
Buccinator flattens cheeks
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Levator Labii Superioris sneering
Depressor Anguli Oris frowning
Mastication chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pairs of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles changes shape of tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover; rotates and abducts head
Erector Spinae group of muscles on each side of the back; responsible for keeping it straight and the body erect
Thoracic Muscles muscles that move the thorax
External intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
Diaphragm accomplishes quiet breathing
Abdominal Wall Muscles flex and rotate the vertebral column, compresses abdominal cavity, and holds abdominal viscera
Linea alba vertical linear identification extending from sternum through the navel, to the pubis
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi medically rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm
Deltoid attaches humerus to the scapula and clavicle
Triceps brachii extends forearm
Biceps brachii occupies anterior compartment of the arm
Brachialis flexes forearm
Retinaculum band of connective tissues that cover the flexor and extensor tendons
Flexor carpi flexes wrist
Extensor carpi extends wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes fingers
Created by: kimster_52
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