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Ch. 6 Muscle

QuestionAnswer
contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility the ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
fascia connective tissue outside of the epimysium
perimysium connective tissue around the fascicle
muscle cell muscle fibers
endomysium connective tissue around muscle fibers
actin myrofilaments thin myrofilaments
myosin myrofilaments thick myrofilaments
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscles it innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal the muscle fiber
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter
acetylcholine neurotransmitter
acetylcholinesterase an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine
muscle twitch the contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus
lag phase the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase the time of contraction
relaxation phase the time in which the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment the increase in number of motor units being activated
creatine phosphate high-energy molecule that is stored it a muscle
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions
muscle fatigue results when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
isometric the length of the muscle does not change, but the amount of tension increases during the contraction process
isotonic the amount of tension produced by the muscle is constant during contraction, but the length of the muscle changes
muscle tone refers to constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin is the most stationary end of the muscle
insertion is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover among a group of synergists, if one muscle plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
Occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
Orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids
Orbicularis oris puckers the lips
Buccinator flattens the cheeks
Orbicularis oris and buccinator the kissing muscles
Zygomaticus smiling muscle
Levator labii superioris sneering
Depressor anguli oris frowning
Mastication chewing
4 pairs of mastication muscles 2 pair of pterygoids, temporalis, and masseter
Intrinsic Tongue Muscles change the shape of the tongue
Extrinsic Tongue Muscles move the tongue
Sternocleidomastoid lateral neck muscle and prime mover
Rotates and abducts the head Sternocleidomastoid
Erector spinae group of muscles on each side of the back
Responsible for keeping the back straight and the body erect Erector spinae
Thoracic Muscles muscles that move the thorax
External intercostals elevate the ribs during inspiration
Internal intercostals contract during forced expiration
Diaphragm Dome-shaped muscle, aids in breathing
Abdominal wall muscles The muscles of the anterior abdominal wall flex and rotate the vertebral column
This tendinous area of the abdominal wall linea alba
linea alba consists of white connective tissue rather than muscle
Trapezius rotates scapula
Serratus anterior pulls scapula anteriorly
Pectoralis major adducts and flexes the arm
Latissimus dorsi medially rotates, adducts, and powerfully extends the arm
Deltoid attaches the humerus to the scapula and clavicle
Triceps brachii extends the forearm
Biceps brachii flexes the forearm
Brachialis flexes forearm
Flexor carpi flexes the wrist
Extensor carpi extends the wrist
Flexor digitorum flexes the fingers
Extensor digitorum extends the fingers
Created by: jacobjackson