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Chapter 6 Muscle

QuestionAnswer
the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
the ability to be stretched extensibility
ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched elasticity
each skeletal muscle surrounded by a connective tissue sheath epimysium
another connected tissue located outside the epimysium fascia
a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called muscle fasciculi (fascicle)
single muscle cells that composes the fasciculi fibers
connective tissue sheath that surrounds each muscle fiber endomysium
a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other myofibrils
myofibrils consist of2 major kinds of protein fiers actin myofilaments and myosin myofilaments
thick myofilaments myosin
thin myofilaments actin
the cytoplasm of each fiber is filled with myofibrils
buttocks gluteus maximus
chest muscle pectoral muscle
back muscle latissimus dorsi
anterior thigh muscle quadriceps femoris
posterior thigh muscle hamstrings
muscle responsible for smiling zygomaticus
muscle responsible for sneering levator labii superioris
muscle responsile for frowning depressor anguli oris
closes the eyelid orbicularis oculi
puckers the mouth orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
What does ATP mean adenosine triphosphate
what is ATP needed for energy for muscle contraction
produced in the mitochondria ATP
short-lived and unstable ATP
one muscles plays a major role in a desired movement prime mover
muscles that work opposite of eachother antagonists
muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements synergists
portion or the muscle between the origin and the insertion belly
the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement insertion
orgin (head) the most stationary end of the muscle
slow- twitch fibers contract slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
fast- twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
constant tensions of muscles muscle tone
amount of tension produced is constant but length of the muscle changes isotonic
the length of the muscle doesn't change but the tension increases during the contraction process isometric.
ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than is can be produced muscle fatigue
oxygen debt the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose
aerobic respiration with oxygen
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
high energy molecule besides ATP creatine phosphate
basic structural and functional unity of the muscle sarcomere
each sarcomere extends from one Z line to another Z line
has a banded appearance actin and myosin
light area next to the Z line I band
The I band consists of Actin
In the center of each sarcomere is another light area called H zone
The H zone only consists of Myosin
myosin myofilaments are anchored in the center of the sarcomere at a dark staining band called M line
The outside of the cell membrane is positively charged
the inside of the cell membrane is negatively charged
change difference across the membrane resting membrane potential
When a muscle cell is stimulated the membrane characteristics change breifly
the brief reversal back of the charge is called action ptential
nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor nuerons
Axons enter the muscles and branch
each branch that connects to the muscle forms a nueromuscular juction or synapse
a single motor neuron motor unit
Many motor units form a single muscle
a neuromusclular junction is formed by an enlarged nerve terminal
the enlarged terminal is the presynaptic terminal
the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell is the synaptic cleft
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine
occurs as actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing sarcomeres to shorten muscle contraction
when the sarcomeres shorten is causes the muscles to shorten
a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers muscle twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called threshold
the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction is called the lag phase
the time of contraction contraction phase
the time during which the muscle relaxes relaxation phase